Industrial RevolutionChapter 91700-1900 Standard 10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan and the United States
Introduction to Industrial Revolution When ? Began in England in 1750 By the late 1800’s Germany, U.S., Japan and Russia were industrialized
Introduction to Industrial Revolution The shift from making goods by hand to making them by machine. What ?
Introduction to Industrial Revolution Why ? Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Movement More food Rise in population Migration to cities
Machines in Factories!!!! New inventions in Communication and Transportation How ? Introduction to Industrial Revolution
Introduction to Industrial Revolution Scientists Watt Whitney Bessemer Pasteur Edison Darwin Pavlov Freud Philosophers Smith Malthus Ricardo Bentham Mill Marx Who ?
Legacy of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution affected all classes of society in several different ways- Politically Socially Economically
Industrial Revolution Begins in England in 1700’s but another revolution had to occur first!! Agricultural Revolution Enclosures Sec. 1 Beginnings of Industrialization
Enclosure movementhas 2 major effects Land owners experiment with new methods Small farmers forced to become tenant farmers or migrate to cities to look for work New Methods Crop rotation Livestock breeding Agricultural Revolution Increase in food production Increase in population
Crop Rotation and Breeding Why was crop rotation and Livestock breeding so important to the industrial Revolution?
Natural resources- coal, iron ore, rivers, harbors Labor supply Capital Entrepreneurs Transportation Markets Political Stability Factors of Production- land, labor, capital Why the Industrial Revolution began in England!
Inventions Spur Industrialization(Textiles) Power Loom Flying Shuttle Eli Whitney Spinning Jenny Cotton Gin
Textiles • The new textile machines were large and expensive • Making clothes now moved from the home to factories
Why is transportation so important to the success of the Industrial Revolution?
Robert Fulton Improvements in Transportation The Clermont James Watt Steam Engine
Cheap Transportation Created new jobs Helped England’s agricultural and fishing industries Encouraged country people to take city jobs Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain
Section 2 Industrialization • A Mixed Blessing • Negatives • unhealthy working • conditions • pollution • child labor • class tensions • Positives • more jobs • economic opportunities
Urbanization • City building and the movement of people to cities • Why were so many people migrating to the cities? • London’s population 1800 - 1 million 1901 – 3 million
Urbanization • What problems would occur as a result of so many people moving to the city? • Whose responsibility is it to improve the living conditions in the city? • What steps can be taken to improve the living conditions?
Why did the landowners have little or no respect for factory owners? Sec. 2 Class Tension Grows • British Social Classes • Upper class- landowners, aristocrats, factory owners, bankers • Upper middle class-managers, merchants, doctors, lawyers • Lower middle class- factory overseers, skilled workers • Working class- laborers, unskilled workers
Ned Ludd- destroyed machinery and attacked factories Why? Sec. 2 The Luddites
Sec. 2 Positive Effects of Industrialization • List the positive effects • Created jobs, wealth • Technology, inventions • Production of goods increased leading to lower prices • Higher wages leads to healthier diets, better housing • Educational opportunities • Overall, higher standard of living
Why was Manchester the perfect city for a factory? Access to waterpower Labor Outlet to the sea at Liverpool How was Manchester an example of the best and the worst of the Industrial Revolution? Child labor, dangerous working conditions, pollution Creates wealth, standard of living rises The Mills of Manchester
Child Labor Child Labor
Section 3 Industrialization Spreads Technological Boom!! • United States Expansion • Natural resources- oil, coal, iron • Inventions- lights bulb, telephone • railroads
Industrialization in United States • Britain forbids engineers to leave • 1789 Samuel Slater immigrates to U.S. • Lowell, Massachusetts- 1st major industrial city in U.S.
Section 3 Rise of Corporations • How do you raise enough money to start a business? • Sell shares of stock in order to form corporations John D. Rockefeller Andrew Carnegie
Sec. 3 Continental Europe • How was Belgium able to industrialize quickly? • Why was Germany slow to industrialize? • Give some specific examples of why other European nations did not industrialize.
Sec. 3 The Impact • To keep factories running, industrialized nations needed raw materials. Where are they going to get these resources? • From poor non-industrialized nations. • How do you think industrialized nations chose the areas they would colonize? • On the basis of their natural resources!
The Impact, continued • The need for both additional resources and markets ultimately led to Imperialism • Imperialism- a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other nations politically, economically, or socially • What do you think was the most significant effect of the Industrial Revolution? Why? (p.299)
Section 4 Reforming the Industrial World Socialism, Capitalism, and Labor Unions
How Do You Solve the Problems of Industrialization? Standard 10.3.6 Analyze the emergence of Capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, Communism
Sec. 4 Philosophers of Industrialization • Capitalism- an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit. • Laissez faire- the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference • Economics- the study of how society chooses to use scarce resources to satisfy its unlimited wants and needs
Adam Smith- The Wealth of Nations • 3 natural laws • Self-interest • Competition • Supply and demand Government should stay out of business!
Thomas Malthus- An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) What are these 2 charts telling us about the relationship between population and resources? 2. What is the consequence of this relationship?
Laissez fairephilosophers(what are the effects of population growth?) • David Ricardo- Principles of Political Economy and Taxation • If there were more workers than jobs available what would be the result? • If there were more jobs than workers what would be the result? Conclusion: Wages would go lower as a population increased
Laissez fair philosophers believe • That government should resist the idea of helping poor workers • Passing laws would upset the free market system and result in less wealth!
Utilitarianism-the government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people John Stuart Mill: Reforms in education, Law and prisons Jeremy Bentham
New Lanark, Scotland Utopian Ideas- Robert Owen New Harmony, Indiana
Socialism: the factors of production (land, labor, capital) are owned by the public. • Government should plan the economy • and consequently control factories mines, railroads, etc. • Public ownership would promote • equality and end poverty.
Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto “Workers of the World Unite!” Zedong Castro Lenin
Communist Manifesto • Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat • (Employers) vs. (Workers) • Prediction: the proletariat would revolt and take over the factories. • In Communism, all means of production (land, mines, factories, businesses, etc.) would be owned by the people. No private property and all resources are shared equally! • Consequently, poverty disappears. • “dictatorship of the proletariat”
Marx was wrong (on a few things!) • Economic forces do not completely dominate society. Religion, Nationalism, Democracy are strong forces as well. • Wages and the standard of living has increased. • Legislation passed to protect workers.