7-3 Explain how the Industrial Revolution caused economic, cultural, and political changes around the world. Objective: identify why England was the ideal place to start factories and explain why it started in England.
What is it? A change from making goods by hand at home to having factories with machines making goods.
Causes: • Agricultural Revolution: small farms turned into large more productive farms. • In the late 1700’s, early advancements were made in technology and machinery. • The Industrial Revolution caused major economic, cultural and political changes. 1) Enclosure Movement: landowners fenced off their land and whole areas could grow the same crop.
Enclosure Movement Info • In the middle ages, Nobles owned the land and serfs lived on it. (Review from 6th grade) • The rich still own the land, and are forced to rent it to the poor by law • The poor just practiced subsistence or tenant farming, called cottage system • If not tenant farming, people would move to the cities.
Large farms • Parliament made a new law that the rich could fence off their land and do with it what they wanted. • All those small time subsistence farmers get kicked out. • The land owners convert their lands into giant farms that create a surplus of food and material.
Crop Rotation • 2) Crop Rotation: Farmers using different crops on the same soil to replenish the nutrients • Ex. Tobacco, Cotton, Soy Beans, fallow • More food was grown= better nutrition= more people
Technology 3) Advanced Agricultural Technology • Ex. Cotton gin • The Agricultural Revolution led to an increase in population, which forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to the cities.
Where the I.R. Began and WHY: Great Britain (England) • Great Britain: starts the Industrial Revolution because they had the right mixture of: -Plentiful Natural Resources (like coal) -Rivers and Harbors -Experienced entrepreneurs (businessmen) -Rising Population -Political Stability (no revolutions) -Increased world trade -Economic prosperity and growth (right time to make money)
Reflect: did we learn the objective? Objective: identify why England was an ideal place to start factories and explain why it started in England.
Exit Question Why did the Industrial Revolution start in England? A. England has lots of natural rivers B. England had lots of people who spoke English C. England was politically unstable
Standard and Objective • 7-3 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution, including rural-to-urban migration. • Objective: TSWBAT identify the impact of rural-to-urban migration.
Rural-to-Urban Migration: The Agricultural Revolution led to increased population. This forced lots of people to move: from the country to the cities. Many cities doubled in population during the Industrial Revolution.
City-Life How does this compare to country?
Why were they moving? How do you think this changed their lives? How did it change cities?
The Industrial Revolution was an economic revolution, and economic changes were widespread and still impact our world today. • These changes led to cultural and political changes. ECONOMIC CHANGES: -began with the invention of machines -new textile machines for spinning and weaving that had previously been done by hand increased production of cloth goods. -modernization of the textile technology revolutionized industrialization. -the flying shuttle advanced textile production by doubling the amount of weaving a worker could do in one day.
The “spinning jenny” was added later and allowed a spinner to spin 8 threads at one time.
At first operated by hand, these machines were soon powered by the water frame. -In 1779, the spinning mule was invented as a combination of the spinning jenny and water frame, and the mule produced a stronger product. In 1787, the water-powered loom increased the speed of weaving. - The cotton gin increased cotton production following its invention in 1793. - People now depended on large, expensive machines and factories were built to house all of these machines. - Factories were now being built near rivers and streams. -After the steam engine was invented (James Watts) factories began being built away from water sources and the steam engine became the new power source for machines. -Coal and iron were the main resources used to power and build the engines and machines.
Transportation and Productivity: -improved with the development of the steam engine -the steam engine was used to power steamboats and locomotives, leading to the development of canals and railways for trade and transportation -The railroad boom created new jobs for railway workers and miners were needed to obtain coal to power the new engines -trade over long distances and travel for people became easier -the division of labor developed as individuals were assigned specific jobs/tasks which led to increased production of goods and increased output of manufactured goods -Mass production allowed goods to be produced for cheaper prices making them more affordable for the growing population. -workers spent long hours working in factories (14 hour days, 6 days a week) -working conditions were dangerous and often resulted in injury -More $ was earned in factories than on farms, leading to a large rural-to-urban migration
Rural-to-Urban Migration: -led to social changes -the division of labor made clear the division between the worker and owner classes -many cities doubled in population during this time in history -because of low pay for workers and poor living conditions in cities were unregulated, housing conditions were poor and crowded without basic utilities such as running water -people lived in unsanitary conditions with pollution from factories -crime increased due to poverty and police protection was inadequate (The middle and upper classes, usually business owners or other professionals lived in nicer homes in the suburbs and were a reflection of the growing class divisions)
Political Changes: • Further economic changes began due to the dangerous working conditions and growing class divisions which led to political changes • Laissez-faire capitalism was the foundation of the industrial revolution in which all factors of production were privately owned with no govt. interference • Capitalism was based on competition, supply and demand, and self-interest • Supporters of capitalism opposed the creation of minimum wage laws and better working conditions because they thought it would upset the free market system and weaken the wealth • Socialism at the time offered the working class more protection than capitalism did, and it promised to distribute the wealth according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, in the writing of The Communist Manifesto. • Marx provided the fuel for future reforms and revolutions
In addition to socialism, labor unions and reform laws came about in the 1800’s to help correct the problems between social classes. • Unions negotiated for better working conditions, higher pay, and shorter working hours, and they would strike if demands were not met. • The unions were restricted at first, but over time achieved success. • In the 1830’s, the British Parliament began regulating mine and factory conditions for women and children , bringing much needed reforms. • Individual gaps in wealth were a problem and a global gap was also occurring. • As industrialized nations gained power over non-industrialized nations, the industrial powers began looking to exploit weaker nations for resources and markets which led to Imperialism. • Imperialism was born out of the industrial era.
Reflect: • Objective: TSWBAT identify the impact of rural-to-urban migration.
Exit Question What was the impact of rural-to-urban migration? A. Lots of people moved from the city to the country B. Lots of people moved from the country to the city C. Most people stayed where they were from and didn’t move
Standard and Objective • 7-3 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution, including the impact of the growth of population and the changes in the organization of work and labor. • Objective: TSWBAT explain urbanization and capitalism during the Industrial Revolution
Thursday: Urbanization and Capitalism • 1. Urbanization is the movement of people to cities and was part of the large rural-to-urban migration movement. • Why would people move to the cities?
Factories • Factories were built in existing cities or established towns near water sources. With the invention of machines, spinning and weaving previously done by individuals in the home were moved to the factories. Workers spent long hours in the factories, often 14 hours a day 6 days a week.
Watch your hands! • Working conditions were dangerous and often resulted in injury, from which the owner didn’t have to pay.
All for the money! Individuals could earn more in factories than on farms. Many cities doubled in population.
Who needs clean water? Living conditions in cities were unregulated, which led to: • Poor housing conditions • Not enough police protection • Unsanitary conditions
Factories created radically different lifestyles because hired individuals were assigned a specific task, leading to the division of labor.
Capitalism • Capitalism is the foundation of the Industrial Revolution! And is based on: 1. Laws of competition 2. Supply and Demand 3. Self-interest
All for the money!!! • This is an economic system where all factors of production were PRIVATELY owned and there was no government interference. Laissez-faire means ‘hands off’ aka government is not involved in business.
It’s good to be the owner • Many factories did very well and made a profit, which created an even bigger gap between the rich and the poor. Supporters of capitalism (factory owners) opposed the creation of minimum wage laws and better working conditions, because they believed it would upset the free-market system and reduce how much money was made.
Owner Letter (Model) • Dear Mom, My factory is going pretty well. Most of my workers work about 14 hours a day 6 days a week. I know they’re pretty tired, but man we are making tons of textiles. What used to take days to make clothing now takes hours. I love that I own my own business and can make my own decisions. I live in a nice lavish house far away from my workers with servants and fancy furniture. You should come visit sometime and I’ll take you on a tour!
Assignment: Factory Worker Letter Imagine that you were a factory worker in England. Write a ¾ to 1 page letter home to a relative in the country and explain these things: 1. Why it’s crowded in cities 2. Living Conditions 3. Factory life 4. Gap between rich and poor 5. Why is there a factory owner (think capitalism) Each number is worth 20 points
Reflect: • Did we learn our objective? • Objective: TSWBAT explain urbanization and capitalism during the Industrial Revolution
Exit Question How did capitalism and urbanization help the success of factories? A. The government begged country peasants to move to the cities. B. Private owners provided jobs for people who had moved from the country to the city C. It helped make factories safe and clean for workers.
Unhappy workers • Over time, this led to the working class being oppressed more by the middle and upper class, and eventually gave way to the support to a whole new economic system: socialism.
Standard and Objective • 7-3.5 Explain the impact of the new technology that emerged during the Industrial Revolution, including the changes that promoted the industrialization of textile production in England. • Objective: identify major technologies and explain their impact during the Industrial Revolution.
New Technologies during the Industrial Revolution
Cotton Gin Increased Production of cotton Removed the seeds and burs 50X faster than one human Eli Whitney How does this change how cotton is picked?
Flying Shuttle Doubled the amount one person could weave Was operated by hand John Kay
Spinning Jenny Improved Flying shuttle 8x the speed of the flying shuttle Could be operated by a water frame James Hargreaves How would this replace hand-made cloth?
Water Frame Used water to power spinning machines Invented by Richard Arkwright
Steam Engine Replaces water power with steam power factories no longer have to be on rivers Mobile power source… James Watt Watt- becomes the measure of energy How would this change factory locations?