Religion • Religion is can mean many different things to different people. • “Religion is the belief in an ever living God, that is, in a Divine Mind and Will ruling the Universe and holding moral relations with mankind” James Martineau • “Religion is the recognition that all things are manifestations of a Power which transcends our knowledge” Herbert Spencer • May best be described as an emotion resting on a conviction of a harmony between ourselves and the universe at large” J.M.E. McTaggart
Characteristic Features of Religion • Belief in supernatural beings(Gods). • Ritual acts focused on sacred objects. • A moral code believed to be sanctioned by the gods. • Characteristically religious feelings(awe, sense of mystery, sense of guilt, adoration), which tend to be aroused in the presence of sacred objects and during the practice of ritual and which are connected with the idea of gods. • Prayer and other forms of communication with gods. • A more or less total organization of one’s life based on the world view. • A world view, or a general picture of the world as a wholes and the place of individual therein. • The overall purpose of or point of the world and how an individual fits into it. • A social group bound together by the above.
Purpose of Religion • Religion is a culture universal. • Answers questions to the unknown. • Provides a code of ethics. • Maintains order and unity. • To comfort in times of tragedy.
Types Of Religions • Universal Religion(Global): Attempt to appeal to all people, not just to those of one culture or location. • 3 major Universalizing religions: Christianity, Buddhism and Islam. • Ethnic Religion(Cultural): Based on physical characteristics of a particular place, and therefore limited in its appeal. • Example: Hinduism • Tribal(Traditional) Religions: Localized religion in which a small group determines what is sacred. • Example: Animism
Ethnic and Traditional Religions • Attached to a certain location and thus harder to transmit to people elsewhere in the world. • May change if the social, economic and physical conditions of a homeland change. • Ethnic religions include, Hinduism, the largest, Judaism, Confucianism , Daoism (Taoism), or Shintoism. • There are also other smaller African traditional religions or tribal(traditional) religions. Shamanism is also a tribal religion.
Tribal Religions: Animism • Animism: The original human religion. • Defined as the belief in the existence of spiritual beings. • dates back to the earliest humans. • Characteristics of aboriginal and native cultures, can be practiced by anyone. • Believe all living beings have a soul.
Beliefs on Animism • Animistic Gods are often immortalized by mythology explaining the creation of fire, wind, water, man, animals and other natural earthly things. • Each sect of animism varies, but there are similarities between gods, goddesses, and rituals. • There are holy men or women, visions, trancing , dancing, sacred items, sacred places for worship and the connection felt to the spirits of the ancestors.
Origins of Judaism • Grew out of Semitic tribes living in SW Asia (Middle East) in 2000 BC. • Abraham the father of Judaism migrated from present day Iraq to Canaan-tribal leader of the Hebrews when God intervenes. • Moses led the enslaved Jews from Egypt to Canaan. • Each of the twelve sons and grandsons of Jacob were granted a piece of Canaan. • After internal strife and being conquered only Israel and Judah lasted-Israel (another word for Jacob), was wiped out and Judah remained.
Distribution of Judaism • The distribution of Judaism is unlike any other ethnic religions as a result of forced and voluntary migration. • 70 AD the Romans forces them to disperse throughout the world-this became known as the Diaspora. • Exiled from their homeland and attempted genocide of the Nazis. • As a result of the Holocaust the Jews were granted the homeland of Israel—the root of much conflict today (Arab-Israeli Crisis). • 6 million in the United States, million in Israel, 2 million in Russia. • Zionism: A movement of Jewish people to move back to the homeland.
Basic Beliefs of Judaism • First religion based on ethics and what is right and wrong. • Ten Commandments given to Moses on Mount Sinai. HO • Monotheistic, based upon the Torah or the Old Testament. • Teacher of Judaism: Rabbi • Place of worship: Synagogue. • Holidays: Hanukkah a celebration lights—trapped in a synagogue represented by the light. -Rosh Hashanah: The Jewish New Year. -Yom Kippur: Day of atonement.
Three Branches of Judaism • Orthodox: Traditionalist who observer most of the traditional dietary and ceremonial laws of Judaism. • Conservative: Do not hold to the importance of the Jewish political state, but more emphasis on the historic and religious aspects of Judaism, between Orthodox and Reform. • Reform: The liberal wing of Judaism, culture and race orientated with little consensus on doctrinal or religious belief.
Origins of Hinduism • The oldest and most complex of all religions. • No specific founder. • Originated in the religious practices of Aryan tribes who moved to India from central Asia. • Aryans attack the Harappan people in 1500BC and combined the polytheism of the Aryans with the sanctity of fertility of the Harappans. • Aryans soon dominated.
Beliefs Of Hinduism • Based on the idea of reincarnation. • Souls go up and down an infinite hierarchy depending on the behaviors practiced in life within the caste system. • The caste system includes: • Brahmins(priests) • Kshatriyas(soldiers) • Vaishyas: merchants, farmers, craftspeople. • Sudra: Peasants and unskilled laborers. • Harijahns: “untouchables”, those thought to be descended from Harappan aboriginal people.
Beliefs and Characteristics of Hinduism • The goal is the reach brahman (or the ultimate reality), finding morality and reaching Nirvana. • Nirvana is the peaceful escape from the cycle of reincarnation. • Based on Karma: culminating value of one’s life based upon good/bad actions. • Religious documents: Vedas: religious writings, Upanishads:sacred teachings, the Gita. • Place of worship: Temple • Holidays: Diwali, Holi
Confucianism • Kong Fu Tzu: Pronounced Confucius was born in 551BC (Chou Dynasty) • Wandered through states of China giving advice to rulers. • His writings deal with morality and ethics and proper exercise of political power by the rulers.
Beliefs of Confucianism • Li: includes ritual and etiquette. • Hsia: Love within the family. • Yi: righteousness. • Xin: Honesty and trustworthiness. • Jen: humaneness towards others. *highest Confucius virtue. • Chung: Loyalty to the state.
Connection of Confucianism and the Chinese Notion of An Empire • The Mandate of Heaven establishes the sacred character of the emperor who is the “son of Heaven” • The Mandate of Heaven reflects the notion of universally kingship: emperor rules all under Heaven • Emperor mediates between the realm of humans and heaven and his virtue ensures proper harmony.
Practices of Confucianism • Bases on an ethical system to which rituals at important times in people’s lives were added. • Four life passages: • birth (T’ai-shen): protects a pregnant woman. • reaching maturity: Group meal in which the adult is served chicken. • marriage: Performed in six stages dealing with the proposal, engagement, dowry, procession, marriage, morning after. • death: relatives cry aloud to inform neighbors and the burial is performed by a Taoist Priest, a Buddhist or a Christian Minister Sacred Texts: Si Shu or four books describing different aspects of Confucianism and expected behavior..
Taoism or Daoism • Lao Tzu or Tao Te Ching: 6th century BC • Contemporary of Confucius. • The message is based on the workings of the Tao. • Chuang Tzu: 3rd Century BC • Author of “Inner Chapters” • Slightly related to Lao Tzu • Recommends disengagement from the world.
Basic Concepts of Taoism • The Tao(Way): the Way to follow to maintain or reestablish order. • TE (Virtue): denotes the unity of virtue and power. • Wu-Wei (non-action, non-interference): acting naturally without conscious effort. • Tzu-jan(the what is such out of itself): what is what it is as itself.
Geographic Distribution of Universal Religions • The three hearths of the Universal religions is in Asia. • All Christianity and Islam in the Middle East (Southwest Asia). • Buddhism in South Asia.
Universal religions • Each of the three universalizing religions are monotheistic, or believe in one God. • Each are divided into branches,denomination and sects. • A branch is a large and fundamental division within a religion. • A denomination is a division within a branch. • A sect is a relatively small denominational group that has broken away from and established church.
Christianity • The largest the universalizing religions. • Dominant in the Americas, Europe, Australia and some African and Asian countries(The dark green represents Christianity).
There are many different branches, denominations and sects of Christianity.
Origins of Christianity • Based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, born in Bethlehem between 8 and 4 BC • Died in Jerusalem about 30 AD • Raised as a Jew. • With his disciples preached the coming of the Kingdom of God. • The four Gospels: sections of the Christian Bible-Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John documented the miracles of Jesus. • He was referred to as the messiah, or anointed one. • Jesus then was betrayed and died by crucifixion.
Expansion and Diffusion of Christianity • Recorded since the time of Jesus. • Expanded by European colonialism: -Spain invaded Middle and South America bringing the Catholic faith -Protestant refugees came to North America to get away. • Diffused from its’ from oppression and conflict hearth Palestine through relocation diffusion—missionaries who brought Catholicism to parts of Africa and Christianity to British India. • The Philippines as a result of Spanish control.
Basic Beliefs • Belief in the Bible, Old and New Testament. • One God in 3 persons, Father, Son and the Holy Spirit. • Ten Commandments • Major Holidays: Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, Christmas & Easter • Place of worship: Church • Religious Leader: Priest
Origins of Islam • Islam in the youngest yet fastest-growing religions. • Traced back to one God (Allah) and Muhammad(570-632 AD) is the major Prophet of Islam. • Other Prophets include Jesus, David, Moses, and Abraham. • Mecca is the town of Muhammad’s birth. • Muhammad emigrated to Medina from Mecca in 622 AD where the Muslim community was established. • Allah revealed his word to Muhammad through the Koran(Qu’ran) the Muslim Holy Book.
Sects of Islam: Sunni and Shiite • Sunni: 87% of all Muslims. • Shiite: Believes relatives of Muhammad had insight into Koran. • Example: Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran—religious title.
Basic Beliefs of Islam • Five Pillars of Islam: -The witness (shahada): there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet. -The Prayer (salat): prayer performed five times a day facing Mecca. -Alms-giving(zakat): giving money to the poor. -Fasting: during daylight in the month of Ramadan. -Pilgrimage(hajj): Visit Mecca once in a lifetime if financially able.
Islam continued… • Mullah: Islamic teacher. • Place of worship: Mosque • Holidays: Ramadan fasting of respect for the poor, Eid:celebration after the completion of Ramadan
Origins of Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC)—the Buddha ‘enlightened one’. • Born in what is now present day Nepal. • Was a Hindu who thought that there should be no suffering and could not understand it. • Through meditation and fasting Siddhartha (Buddha), came up with the Four Noble Truths
Types of Buddhism • Hinayana(Lesser Vehicle), known as the Theravada-exists in Sri Lanka and Thailand. • Mahayana(Great Vehicle): Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, and North Vietnam. Mahayana: prevalent in Tibet. (Dali Lama). • Vajrayana(Diamond Vehicle): strong rituals, similar to Mahayana Buddhism • Zen: developed in China and transmitted to Korea and Japan-’an awakening’.
Four Noble Truths: Arya • The Truth of Suffering or Misery: (Duhkhasatya): That life is suffering, including birth disease old age and death. • The Truth of Cause (Samudayasatya): that suffering is caused by desire and by ignorance. • The truth of Cessation(Nirodhasatya): that suffering can be ended if its causes desire and ignorance are removed. • The Truth of the Way (Margasatya): the Middle Way between the extremes of asceticism and indulgence or the Eightfold Way. HO
Buddhism • Buddhist attempt to achieve Nirvana by following the Eightfold Path. • Buddha was unique and there will not be another for thousands of years. • Nirvana is beyond understanding and rationale. • There are arhats or Buddhist saints. • Buddhist teacher: Monk