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WORLD WAR II. 1939-1945. Axis Powers and Leaders. Germany. Adolph Hitler Leader of Nazi political party Blamed Jews for all of Germany’s economic problems. Italy. Benito Mussolini Promised a new Roman Empire. Japan. Emperor Hirohito Wanted full political and economic control of Pacific

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. WORLD WAR II 1939-1945

    2. Axis Powers and Leaders

    3. Germany • Adolph Hitler • Leader of Nazi political party • Blamed Jews for all of Germany’s economic problems

    4. Italy • Benito Mussolini • Promised a new Roman Empire

    5. Japan • Emperor Hirohito • Wanted full political and economic control of Pacific • Believed in militarism and military run society

    6. Japan • Prime Minister Hideki Tojo • Responsible for all military operations during the war

    7. AlliedLeaders

    8. Great Britain • Winston Churchill • Great orator and leader who kept British citizens from giving up

    9. France • Charles De Gaulle • Led opposition against Germany after they took over France

    10. Soviet Union (Russia) • Joseph Stalin • Great Purge – killed all people who opposed his rule or spoke against Soviet Union

    11. Soviet Union (Russia) • Did not join allies until Hitler double crossed him


    13. Axis Aggression • Axis Powers wanted to gain economic and political control of the World • Japan invaded Manchuria and China to force US to recognize their dominance

    14. Axis Aggression • US refused to recognize Japan and placed embargos of oil and steel • Germany wanted to gain all lands lost after the WWI in the treaty of Versailles

    15. Axis Aggression • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 to show its dominance

    16. Appeasement • Policy of giving into political pressure to avoid war • Allowed Germany to recapture some lands & rebuild their military

    17. War Breaks out in Europe

    18. Munich Pact • Hitler and Stalin sign a non-aggression pact agreeing not to attack each other

    19. September 1, 1939 • Germany and Soviet Union invade Poland after being warned not to invade by France and Great Britain • Official start of World War II

    20. US Isolationism • US did not want to be involved in another European War • US was still going through the Great Depression

    21. Lend-Lease Act • US gave military supplies to Great Britain in exchange for islands in the Caribbean • FDR compared it to “lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire”.

    22. Lend-Lease Act • US used the war to end the Great Depression

    23. World War II Battles and Strategies

    24. Axis War Strategy

    25. Strategies - Europe • Blitzkrieg – fast, lightning attacks on your enemy before they can recover • Invade and conquer France • Use German Air Force to bomb Great Britain until they surrender

    26. Strategies - Europe • Destroy Munich Pact and quickly defeat Soviet Union • Take complete control of Europe before US got involved in the war

    27. Strategies - Pacific • Japan wanted full military and economic control of Pacific • Felt US needed to recognize their power in Pacific

    28. Strategies - Pacific • Attack US Pacific Ocean military base and then invade Australia and Hawaii • They thought US would rather respect them than fight a long, costly war

    29. Pearl Harbor • Dec 7, 1941 Japan attacked the US military base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • Destroyed US Pacific fleet of warships

    30. Pearl Harbor • Dec 8 – US declared war on Japan • Dec 10 – Germany and Italy declared war on US • US now fully involved in World War II

    31. Allied Strategy

    32. Strategy - Europe • Defeat Hitler first • Most US resources were sent to Europe and Africa to fight Germany and Italy • Attack Hitler from all directions and push back toward Germany

    33. Battles – Europe and Africa

    34. Battle of Britain (Aug 1940) • British cities were relentlessly bombed by German Air force • Churchill refused to allow British citizens to give up

    35. El Alamein (Nov 1942) • German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British. • Importance • Prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil and attacking the Soviet Union from the south. • Allies got access to Germany from the South

    36. Stalingrad (Sept 1942) • Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in the Russian city of Stalingrad. • Importance • This defeat prevented Germany from seizing the Soviet oil fields • Allies got access to Germany from East

    37. Normandy (D-Day) June 6, 1944 • Allied troops under Gen. Dwight Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France • Importance • Despite intense German opposition and heavy American casualties, the Americans were able to liberate France. • Allies were able to attack Germany from the west

    38. V-E Day (May 8, 1945) • US and Russian forces closed in on Germany from all sides • Adolph Hitler killed himself before he could be captured • German forces surrendered, ending the war in Europe