What is Scratchboard? • Scratchboard or scraperboard is a technique where drawings are created using sharp knives and tools for etching into a thin layer of white China clay that is coated with black India ink. • Scratchboard can be used to yield highly detailed, precise, and even textured artwork.
Scratchboard Tools: Several tools have been created specifically for scratchboard; however any sharp implement will do.
Initial Preparation/Tips before you start: • If you are comfortable transferring the image to paper free-hand, you may do so. If not, use the grid system. • Animals with lots of tiny details work best, such as furry or feathered creatures. Insects can sometimes also work well if enlarged. • Your animal must be drawn accurately, as seen on the original image. It is most important that you pay careful attention to the direction of the animal’s fur or feathers and make your scratches in that direction. Scratching in the wrong direction can greatly distort the final image.
Steps: Choose your animal photograph that will become the original. Draw the main outlines of the animal on 8 ½ X 11 paper. There is no need to do details like fur or feathers on this paper---this is what the scratchboard is for. Tape the pencil drawing to the scratchboard. Trace over the pencil outlines with ballpoint pen. The indentations are visible if you look at it under a certain angle of light. You may want to check after you make a few lines to be sure you are pressing hard enough. Remove the paper and make sure all of your lines transferred. Use your scratching tools to make the white areas. Big highlights will require more scratching. Be gentle---Don’t scratch too hard or you’ll go through the board. Make sure to do your scratch lines in the same direction as the fur or feathers in your original.
How to enlarge a drawing using a grid: Select the picture you want to enlarge. Place a ruler along the top edge of the picture. Make a small mark with a pencil at every 1/2 inch. Mark the bottom edge of the picture the same way. Make sure you have the same number of marks at the top and bottom of the picture. Connect each pencil mark at the top of the picture with a corresponding mark at the bottom using a ruler. This will make parallel lines over the picture. Measure and mark every 1/2 inch along the side edges of the picture. Connect the marks on each side. Your picture is now covered with squares called a grid. Calculate how much larger you need to make your picture and how large you need to make squares on a second grid. For example, if you are doubling the picture size, squares in the second grid will be 1 inch. Draw a second grid on a larger sheet of blank paper. Use a yardstick to make this larger grid if necessary. Copy the picture from the first grid, square by square, by drawing it on the new, larger grid.
New Vocabulary Words: • Texture: It is the Element of Art that refers to the look and feel of the artwork. It could be based on the paint and its application, or the addition of materials such as ribbon, metal, wood, lace, leather and sand. • Texture stimulates two different senses: • Sight • Touch • There are two types of texture: • Actual Texture (physical, tactile) • Implied Texture (actual, visual)
Actual Texture (physical or tactile) • It is how the artwork feels to the touch. • It is associated both with the heavy build up of paint, such as an impasto effect, or the addition of materials such as fabric, sand, corrugated paper, etc.
Implied Texture (simulated or visual) • It is the illusion of having physical texture. • It creates the visual effect of texture without actually adding texture. • For instance, a texture created to look like something other than paint on a flat surface.
Requirements of the assignment: You need to make an accurate/realistic drawing of the animal from the original picture. Include some background. Try to capture as many textures as you can (feathers, fur, leaves, etc).