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Aim : How did President Bush continue the policies of President Reagan?. Introduction. By the early 1990s, Americans were preparing for more changes in direction. Americans were celebrating the end of the Cold War and watched the Soviet Union break apart.

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Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

Aim: How did President Bush continue the policies of President Reagan?


Introduction
Introduction

  • By the early 1990s, Americans were preparing for more changes in direction.

  • Americans were celebrating the end of the Cold War and watched the Soviet Union break apart.

  • On the domestic front, they continued to experience high unemployment, budget problems and changing social patterns.

  • Many Americans began to look for new approaches in both foreign and domestic policies to take the United States into the 21st century.


1 a new presidency
1. A New Presidency

  • Ronald Reagan had given the United States eight years of conservative leadership.

  • The presidential election of 1988 would decide if the American people would stay with conservatism or strike out in different directions.


1 1 voters choose george bush
1.1 Voters Choose George Bush

  • Given the Iran-Contra scandal and the rising deficit, Democrats thought they had a good chance in the election of 1988.

  • The Democrats, however, failed to follow up on their advantages.

  • In the early stages of the campaign, so many Democrats became candidates that it was hard for one from another.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • Jesse Jackson, the party’s liberal African American candidate and a powerful speaker, was one of the finalists.

  • At the nominating convention, Jackson lost out to Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis.

  • Chosen as the Democratic presidential candidate, Dukakis presented himself as a cool manager who made his state prosper.

  • Dukakis nominated Senator Lloyd Bentsen as his vice-presidential candidate.


Michael dukakis and lloyd bentsen
Michael Dukakis and Lloyd Bentsen candidate and a powerful speaker, was one of the finalists.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • The Republicans gathered solidly behind George Bush, who had been Ronald Reagan’s vice-president for eight years.

  • Bush chose young Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his running mate.

  • The Republicans painted Bush as a tough candidate who would stay with Reagan’s policies, including lowering taxes.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan


George bush and dan quayle
George Bush and Dan Quayle vote and 426 electoral votes.


Election of 1988
Election of 1988 vote and 426 electoral votes.

The states in blue voted for George Bush and the states in red voted

for George Bush. George Bush became the 41st President of the US in

1988.


1 2 bush commands world stage
1.2 Bush Commands World Stage vote and 426 electoral votes.

  • During the campaign, Republicans focused on Bush’s long experience in foreign affairs.

  • As President, Bush took an active role in dealing with other nations of the world.


End of the cold war
End of the Cold War vote and 426 electoral votes.

  • Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev had started government and social reforms inside the Soviet Union when he became leader during the mid-1980s.

  • Seeing these changes, other nations controlled by the Soviet Union demanded they, too, receive the same changes and reforms.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • In June 1989, only six months after Bush had taken office, Poland held free elections.

  • Non-Communist leaders of Lech Walesa’s Solidarity movement won control over the government.

  • Soon after, people in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and East Germany rose up against their Soviet-style governments.

  • In November, Germans tore down the Berlin Wall, symbolizing the division between East and West Germany.

  • Germans soon began to reunite their country.


The fall of the berlin wall
The Fall of the Berlin Wall Poland held free elections.


The fall of the berlin wall1
The Fall of the Berlin Wall Poland held free elections.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • Gorbachev refused to use force to crush the uprisings in Eastern Europe.

  • President Bush offered moral support and modest financial aid to Eastern Europe’s new governments.

  • In November 1990, Bush discussed the future of Europe in a meeting with 32 European nations.

  • Bush wanted to bring in a new era of democracy now that the Cold War was over.



Breakup of the soviet union
Breakup of the Soviet Union Eastern Europe.

  • Early in 1990, some members of the 15 separate republics that made up the Soviet Union began pushing for independence.

  • Gorbachev was unable to stop this independence movement.

  • In August 1991, hard-line Communists in Moscow-who feared the end of the Soviet Union and objected to Gorbachev’s reforms-tried to overthrow Gorbachev.

  • Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian republic, rallied the people to protect Gorbachev and save the spirit of reform.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • While events unfolded in Moscow, the United States and other Western European nations recognized the independence of these nations.

  • By the end of September, all 15 members of the Soviet Republic had declared independence.

  • Then on December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigned his authority ending the Soviet Union.

  • Boris Yeltsin succeeded in bringing 10 of the old republics into a loose federation called the Commonwealth of Independent States.


Soviet union 1945 1991
Soviet Union 1945-1991 Western European nations recognized the independence of these nations.


Russia 1991 present
Russia 1991-Present Western European nations recognized the independence of these nations.


Boris yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin Western European nations recognized the independence of these nations.


Voices for freedom in china
Voices for Freedom in China Western European nations recognized the independence of these nations.

  • The spirit of democracy reached as far as the People’s Republic of China.

  • In the spring of 1989, a million people gathered in the capital city of Beijing to demonstrate for freedom.

  • On June 4, however, government authorities sent in tanks and soldiers in a bloody crackdown that killed hundreds of students in Tiananmen Square.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan


Tiananmen square 1989
Tiananmen Square 1989 leader of China, refused to make any changes in the communist system.


Tiananmen square 19891
Tiananmen Square-1989 leader of China, refused to make any changes in the communist system.


Tiananmen square 19892
Tiananmen Square-1989 leader of China, refused to make any changes in the communist system.


Deng xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping leader of China, refused to make any changes in the communist system.


More world changes
More World Changes leader of China, refused to make any changes in the communist system.

  • During the last term of the Reagan administration, Congress had banned imports from South Africa and prohibited Americans from investing there.

  • The ban protested apartheid-a policy of segregating the Black majority and keeping it under the control of the white minority.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan


F w de klerk
F.W. de Klerk popular Black leader Nelson Mandela from prison.


Nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela popular Black leader Nelson Mandela from prison.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • In Latin America, the pro-communist regime in Nicaragua held free elections in 1989.

  • In the election, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, a political moderate and pro-American leader, defeated the Sandinista candidate and she was able to assume the presidency peacefully.

  • Ten years of Sandinista rule ended.


Violeta barrios de chamorro
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro free elections in 1989.


1 3 united states military actions
1.3 United States Military Actions free elections in 1989.

  • President Bush exerted his leadership in foreign military actions.

  • Bush used some of the arms that Reagan built up during his presidency.


Panama invasion
Panama Invasion free elections in 1989.

  • In December 1989, Bush sent some 26,000 troops to the Central American nation of Panama.

  • The mission was to remove General Manuel Noreiga, the President of Panama from power.

  • Noreiga had refused to leave office even after the people of Panama voted him out in a national election.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • American troops captured Noreiga and brought him to the United States, where he stood trial on earlier drug-trafficking charges.

  • Many people applauded the invasion of Panama.

  • Some people, especially in Latin America, criticized the invasion because the United States used force and that innocent civilians were killed in the process.


Panama
Panama United States, where he stood trial on earlier drug-trafficking charges.


Operation just cause
Operation Just Cause United States, where he stood trial on earlier drug-trafficking charges.


General manuel noreiga
General Manuel Noreiga United States, where he stood trial on earlier drug-trafficking charges.


Persian gulf war
Persian Gulf War United States, where he stood trial on earlier drug-trafficking charges.

  • One year later, President Bush ordered American forces into a much bigger military action.

  • In August 1990, the President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, sent his army into taking over neighboring Kuwait. Kuwait’s main export was oil.

  • Bush saw this move by Hussein as a threat to peace and stability in the Middle East while threatening the shipment of oil.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan


Secretary of defense dick cheney general of the joint chiefs of staff colin powell
Secretary of Defense-Dick Cheney how to respond.General of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-Colin Powell

Both Dick Cheney and Colin Powell were instrumental in our organizing and

enforcing Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Cheney is now vice president while Colin Powell was Secretary of State under

George Bush. They were instrumental in planning Operation Enduring Freedom.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • By January 1991, the United States had flown more than 400,000 troops and their equipment into Saudi Arabia.

  • The Americans joined soldiers from other nations that belonged to the coalition (temporary alliance) to drive Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait.

  • Hussein and the Iraqi forces dug in along defensive lines near Saudi Arabia.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • American casualties were light. War—opened with a massive air assault.

  • One hundred hours after the ground war began, President Bush declared a cease fire.

  • Iraqi power was damaged and Kuwait was liberated.


Saddam hussein
Saddam Hussein War—opened with a massive air assault.


Operation desert storm
Operation Desert Storm War—opened with a massive air assault.


General norman schwarzkopf
General Norman Schwarzkopf War—opened with a massive air assault.



George bush poll 1991
George Bush Poll (1991) Defense Dick Cheney


1 4 bush struggles with domestic concerns
1.4 Bush Struggles with Domestic Concerns Defense Dick Cheney

  • President Bush won praise for his foreign policy.

  • However, he had trouble with domestic affairs.

  • Bush continued the policies of Reagan regarding lower taxes and cutting of social programs.

  • Bush called for a “thousand points of light” or volunteers to help solve domestic problems.


Thousand points of light
Thousand Points of Light Defense Dick Cheney


Failings of savings and loans
Failings of Savings and Loans Defense Dick Cheney

  • In 1990, a serious recession struck the economy.

  • Sales of goods slumped, manufacturing plants closed, workers lost jobs, real estate prices dropped.

  • Many banks had taken risks after the government eased regulations during the Reagan years.

  • Under Bush, they now had debts that needed to be paid, the problems was they could not do it.


Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • Because the government insures bank deposits, the government took steps to repay the depositors money.

  • The government sold all real estate holdings which belonged to the banks.

  • Due to the poor real estate market, the government had to spend more money to pay off the loans.

  • Americans were annoyed that their taxes were used to pay off monies that the banks owed. This showed many Americans that the government catered to the needs of the wealthy while many people who were working class struggled.


Silverado savings and loan bailed out by the bush administration
Silverado Savings and Loan-Bailed out by the Bush Administration

Not only is Neil Bush the CEO of this

S & L. He is the youngest son of the

President of the United States,

George H.W. Bush.


New taxes
New Taxes Administration

  • As a candidate, Bush promised to make the economy grow which would reduce the federal deficit.

  • The deficit went up and by 1990, Bush realized that he should go with the Democrats and reduce the deficit within five years.

  • The plan of Congress was to lower spending on health care, cutting social programs, raising taxes on the wealthiest Americans and increased taxes on gas, luxury goods and alcohol.

  • People accused Bush of going against his promise of “read my lips…no new taxes.”



Foreign trade
Foreign Trade Administration

  • Another problem facing the United States economy was the unfavorable balance of trade.

  • The balance of trade refers to the difference between the total value of the country’s exports compared with the total value of the country’s imports.

  • Americans bought many more goods from the Japanese than the Japanese bought from the United States.

  • The United States had a large and costly imbalance in its trade with Japan.

  • Early in 1992, Bush flew to Japan to persuade their government to buy more of our products. The visit to Japan failed to change people’s minds in Japan.



Aim how did president bush continue the policies of president reagan

  • In an attempt to improve the foreign trade imbalance and improve the economy, President Bush began to work with Canada and Mexico on a North American Free Trade Agreement.

  • Under the agreement, the three nations would eliminate tariffs and other laws that would hold back trade.

  • This would make North America one huge, free-trade unit when Bush announced the plan in 1992.

  • Congress did not take any action on NAFTA while Bush was president.


Nafta
NAFTA improve the economy, President Bush began to work with Canada and Mexico on a North American Free Trade Agreement.

The three major nations that compose NAFTA are the United

States, Mexico and Canada.

NAFTA encourages free trade across the North American

continent.


The bush supreme court
The Bush Supreme Court improve the economy, President Bush began to work with Canada and Mexico on a North American Free Trade Agreement.

  • Like Reagan, Bush believed in appointing Supreme Court justices who would support his conservative views.

  • In 1990, Bush appointed David Souter from New Hampshire to become a new justice.

  • In 1991, he appointed Clarence Thomas to replace Thorogood Marshall.


Bush appointments to the us supreme court
Bush Appointments to the US Supreme Court improve the economy, President Bush began to work with Canada and Mexico on a North American Free Trade Agreement.

David Souter (1990)

Clarence Thomas (1991)


Gridlock in washington dc
Gridlock in Washington, DC improve the economy, President Bush began to work with Canada and Mexico on a North American Free Trade Agreement.

  • Congress and the Bush administration could seldom agree on how to solve all of our nation’s problems.

  • Constant squabbling brought government action to a standstill, popularly called gridlock.

  • As the elections of 1990 grew near, upset voters threatened to get rid of their officials, but all the incumbents-the people already in office had won re-election.