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chapter 29 path of empire 1890 1899 n.
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  1. Chapter 29: Path of Empire 1890-1899 American Imperialism

  2. DVD/Videos • The Spanish-American War: Birth of a Super Power • The American President • Executive Vision • Monroe, McKinley, Wilson, Bush

  3. Foreign Policy and the Early Republic Washington Farewell Address 1796 Monroe Doctrine 1823 Isolationism

  4. Foreign policyEarly Republic • Washington’s Farewell Address 1796 • Steer clear of alliances • Build the nation • Jefferson to 1890s • U.S. led a separate existence • Extend commercial relations • Monroe Doctrine 1823 • Non-colonization • Warning that American continents not subject for future colonization • Non-intervention • U.S. will not interfere in Europe

  5. Post Napoleonic Wars American concerns British Concerns Wanted no part of continental Europe Offered a proposition to U.S. renouncing any interest in Latin America warning Europe to keep out of Latin American republics • Monarchs of Europe banded together attempting to restore monarchy that had been threatened by Napoleon and French Revolution • Rumors Russia, Austria, Prussia and France would act together to insure the failure of rebellions in Spanish America


  6. American Isolation • Monroe Doctrine 1823 • Not much significance at the time • An expression of nationalism • Deepened illusion of isolationism • Oceans isolated the U.S. until 1890 • Secretaries of State dealt with foreign affairs

  7. Industrialization andForeign Policy Changing Conditions Debate Over Empire Expansionism and Asia

  8. Post Civil War • Changing conditions • Industrialization • Sought world markets • Bankers look for foreign investments • Immigration • Millions enter • Continue their interest in their old homeland • Intellectual • Look to Europe for ideas, examples • New Manifest Destiny • Expansion now overseas

  9. Foreign Policy: Debate over EmpireTurn of the 20th Century Isolationists Anti-Imperialist League Expansionists Imperialists Empire building Necessary to survive in the world Expand or explode Industrial production means need for other markets War will make America fit Whetted nation’s appetite for adventures abroad Missionaries White Man’s Burden Jingoism Teddy Roosevelt Rudyard Kipling William Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer Yellow journalism • Empire building means • Violation of American values of self-government and freedom • Build an ideal society • Avoid conflict • Expansion means military autocracy • Grover Cleveland • Mark Twain • Samuel Gompers

  10. American Imperialism in Asia China Japan

  11. ASIA

  12. American ImperialismCHINA • China • America became a Pacific power • U.S. acquisition of • Oregon (1846) • California (1850) • Increased opportunities for trade in the • Far East • Commercial interests pushed for trade with Japan • 1844 Treaty of Wanghia (Britain and China) • Opened Chinese ports to trade • Extraterritoriality • Foreigners who commit crimes will be tried in own courts • Unequal treaties • All other nations followed

  13. American ImperialismJAPAN • Japan • Opening of Japan 1854 • U.S. sent warships commanded by • Commodore Matthew Perry • Treaty of Kanagawa 1854 • U.S. and Japan • Opened Japanese ports to trade • Extraterritoriality • Unequal treaties • All other nations followed

  14. Expansion The Pacific Alaska Stepping Stones Hawaii Midway Samoa

  15. Expansion OverseasPacific: ALASKA • Purchase of Alaska 1867 • Russia • Overextended in North America • Concerned about the possibility of war with Britain and potential loss of Alaska to them • Eager to unload their “frozen asset” • Secretary of State, William Seward • Ardent expansionist • Purchased Alaska for $ 7.2 million • Less than two cents an acre • “Seward’s Folly” • Believed gold, fur, fish there • Results • 1959 Became 49th state • 1968 Discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay • 1977 Completion of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

  16. Purchase of Alaska 1867

  17. Alaska and the Lower Forty-Eight States A size comparison

  18. Expansion OverseasPacific • Midway Island 1867 • U.S. occupied • Samoan Islands • 1878 U.S. naval base at Pago Pago • Britain, Germany and U.S. compete for control • 1889 Three way protectorate • 1899 Divided between U.S. and Germany • U.S. retained Pago Pago

  19. Expansion in the Pacific

  20. The Influence of Sea Power upon History1890 • The Influence of Sea Power upon History • By Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan • Control of the sea • Key to world domination • Stimulated naval race among the world powers • Read by British, Germans and Japanese and fellow Americans • Called for U.S. to build a(n) • Isthmian canal (Panama Canal 1914) • Two ocean navy (Great White Fleet 1908) • Overseas empire • Stepping Stones

  21. Stepping Stones

  22. U.S. in the Pacific 1900

  23. Expansion OverseasPacific: HAWAII • Hawaii • 1820s New England missionaries • 1840s State Department warned other nations to stay out • 1875 commercial reciprocal treaty • Hawaii gave no territorial concessions to foreign powers • Hawaiian sugar was duty free • 1887 Pearl Harbor • U.S. naval base with exclusive rights

  24. Expansion OverseasPacific: HAWAII • 1890 McKinley Tariff • Taxed Hawaiian products • White planters on Hawaii pressed for annexation • President Cleveland opposed annexation • Queen Liliuokalani wanted native self-rule • Question of Hawaii’s annexation • Touched off the first full scale imperialist debate • 1898 Spanish-American War • Hawaii annexed • 1959 Hawaiian statehood—50th state

  25. Queen Liliuokalani • Last reigning queen • of Hawaii • Defense of native • Hawaiian • self-governing • Touched off rebellion • by white planters

  26. Hawaiian Islands

  27. American Imperialism Latin America First Pan-American Congress 1889 Venezuelan Boundary Dispute 1865-1869

  28. Latin America • 1880s Secretary of State, James Blaine • Felt U.S. should dominate in the western hemisphere • 1889 First Pan-American Congress • U.S. and Latin America cooperate on matters of common concern • Reciprocal tariff reduction

  29. Latin AmericaVenezuela • Venezuelan Boundary Dispute 1895-1896 • Venezuela and Britain • Jungle unsurveyed • Gold was discovered • Tension increased • Cleveland & Sec. of State Richard Olney said • Britain by trying to acquire more territory was • Violating the Monroe Doctrine • U.S. demanded arbitration

  30. Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Dispute

  31. Latin AmericaVenezuela • Venezuelan Boundary Dispute 1895-1896 • Britain denied relevance of Monroe Doctrine • President Cleveland threatened force • Britain • Preoccupied with Boers (supported by Germany) in Africa • Agreed to arbitration • (Ironically) most of the land went to Britain

  32. Venezuelan Boundary Dispute1895-1896 • RESULTS • U.S. asserted national power in world affairs • Boost to Monroe Doctrine • Enhanced prestige for U.S.

  33. Election of 1896 William McKinley William Jennings Bryan

  34. Election 1896 • William Jennings Bryan (D) • Common man William McKinley (R) Big money

  35. Election of 1896

  36. William McKinley 1897-1901 • Republican from Ohio • Calm demeanor • New corporate sensibility • Pioneered modern management of the presidency • Last president to have fought in the Civil War • Reluctant to go to war • Spanish-American War • Reelected 1900 • Assassinated by an anarchist in 1901 • Third assassination in 36 years

  37. Spanish-American War 1898 Background Sinking of the Maine 1898 Teller Amendment 1898 Rough Riders Paris Peace Treaty 1898 Results

  38. Spanish-American War 1898Background • Cuba and Puerto Rico • Last of Spain’s empire in the New World • U.S. had designs on Cuba dating back to the 1840s • Polk tried to buy it for $ 100 million • Spain refused • 1854 Ostend Manifesto • Another attempt to buy it for $ 120 million • Northern states against it

  39. Spanish-American War 1898Background • Cuban Rebellion 1895 • Caused by economic strife • Cuban sugar industry hurt by American tariff • Spanish rule in Cuba • Menaced trade in the region • General Valerian (Butcher) Weyler • Crushed rebellion • American response • U.S. sympathetic to Cubans • President Cleveland refused to intervene • Anti-imperialist

  40. Spanish-American War 1898 • Yellow journalism 1895-1898 • Sensational and exaggerated news reporting • Designed to sell papers and influence public opinion • William Randolph Hearst • Sent artist, Frederick Remington • “You furnish the pictures. I’ll furnish the war.” • Joseph Pulitzer

  41. Spanish-American War 1898Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine • U.S.S. Maine 1898 • Sent to Cuba to protect and evacuate Americans • Exploded in Havana Harbor Feb. 15, 1898 • 266 Americans dead • U.S. blamed Spanish • (Reality—internal, accidental causes) • “Remember the Maine” • Demand for war • President McKinley opposed but • Public opinion drove him

  42. The Explosion of the MaineFebruary 15, 1898 Outcry over the tragedy of the Maine helped drive the country to war.

  43. Spanish-American War 1898 • Declaration of war April 11, 1898 • Teller Amendment • U.S. denied any intention of annexing Cuba • Theodore Roosevelt—Asst. Sec. of Navy • Ordered Commodore George Dewey • Proceed to the Philippine Islands • Captured Manila • Filipino leader, Emilio Aguinaldo • Assisted the invasion

  44. Spanish-American War 1898 • U.S. troops in Cuba • Ill-equipped • “Rough Riders” • Part of the invading army • Regiment of volunteers, cowboys • Led by Lieutenant Colonel Teddy Roosevelt • Battle of San Juan Hill Charge of the Rough Riders by Frederic Remington

  45. The Cuban Campaign1898