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World War I. Chapter 22. Roosevelt Foreign Policy. How did Roosevelt deal with issues in the following areas? 1. China (John Hay and Open Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion) Latin America (Panama Canal and Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, Roosevelt Corollary and “Big Stick” Diplomacy)

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World War I


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. World War I Chapter 22

    2. Roosevelt Foreign Policy • How did Roosevelt deal with issues in the following areas? 1. China (John Hay and Open Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion) • Latin America (Panama Canal and Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, Roosevelt Corollary and “Big Stick” Diplomacy) 3. Japan (Russo-Japanese War and Treaty of Portsmouth, Gentlemen’s Agreement, Great White Fleet, Root-Takahira Agreement)

    3. Diplomacy in China The Open Door Policy (John Hay) in 1899 opens trade with China and other imperial powers Xenophobia (fear of foreigners) led to Chinese attacking Europeans in the Boxer Rebellion put down by the alliance of nations controlling China

    4. Open Door Notes John Hay and China in 1915 Hay’s second round of notes stated the commitment of the US to preserve China and restore trade with it

    5. Panama Canal The US wanted to build a canal through Panama so they encouraged a Panama revolution against Colombia (who refused to allow US to build it) and signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty and Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (with Britain) to dig the canal

    6. Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt promised to protect Latin American countries against European powers, justifying the sending of forces into those countries as well as his “big stick” diplomacy (aggressive)

    7. Russo-Japanese War Russia and Japan rivaled for territory and Roosevelt influenced peace at the Treaty of Portsmouth (which helped the US economic trade with both) – it made Japan angry because they were winning

    8. Gentlemen’s Agreement Friction between Japan and US continued, mainly due to discrimination laws against Japanese-Americans in California The US agreed to stop California’s discrimination in return for Japan limiting the amount of immigration to the US

    9. Japanese Relations • Other events that affected Japan under Roosevelt was: • Building the Great White Fleet – demonstration of US naval power sent on a cruise around the world, ending in Tokyo Bay • Root-Takahira Agreement – pledged mutual respect of land acquired in the Pacific and support of the Open Door policy in China

    10. Taft and Wilson Foreign Policy • How successful was Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” and how did Congress combat the idea? (Lodge Corollary) • What were the main events in Wilson attempt at using “Moral Diplomacy” as his foreign policy? (Jones Act, Conciliation Treaties) • How did the events in the Mexican Revolution force Wilson to change his “Moral Diplomacy” stance? (Huerta, Carranza, Pancho Villa, John J. Pershing)

    11. Taft and Dollar Diplomacy • Designed by Taft to gain money for the US through trade by supporting American enterprises abroad • China – Taft secured American participation in the building of railroads in China • Nicaragua – Sent in marines to protect American investments • The Lodge Corollary – Opposed by Taft but passed through Congress, it kept Japan (and other non-Europeans) from taking territory in the Western Hemisphere – angers Japan and Latin America

    12. Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy • Wilson’s “New Freedom” speeches stated that he opposed imperialism and the diplomacies of the Republicans, and he made the following changes: • Jones Act of 1916 – granted territorial status, a bill of rights, and eventual independence to the Philippines • US Citizenship to Puerto Ricans and limited self-government • Repealed act allowing US ships to go through Panama Canal without paying the canal tolls • Conciliation Treaties – negotiate treaties between nations through international commissions

    13. Mexican Revolution Wilson’s diplomatic morals took a back seat when dealing with Mexico and General Huerta, whose dictatorship took over from Diaz Wilson sent arms to his rival Carranza, who defeated Huerta but was challenged by Pancho Villa, who led raids into the US, forcing Pershing to pursue him into Mexico Diaz, Huerta, and Carranza

    14. Global Involvement • The pre-World War I events showed that the US was: • Willing to be involved in foreign affairs and keep order • Encouraging of governments that were friendly towards the US and ruthless to those that weren’t • Interested in protecting economic interests around the world

    15. Reporting Foreign Policy • Choose a foreign policy event and: 1) Create a newspaper article describing the event as it relates to other events around it. Use at least 5 specific terms. 2) Create a political cartoon comparing the event to other foreign policy events during this time. Refer to at least 5 other specific terms.

    16. Causes of WWI and Tensions • What actions caused the beginning of WWI? (Alliances – Allies and Central Powers, Archduke Franz Ferdinand) • Though the US was neutral, what tensions occurred between the US and Germany? (U-Boats, Lusitania and Sussex, “Preparedness” and National Defense Act) • What stance did Wilson take towards WWI in the election of 1816 and what was the result? (“He Kept Us Out of War”)

    17. Causes of WWI – The Balkans Causes: Military Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism (especially in the Balkans) Leads to two sides: Allies (Britain, France, Russia) and Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) US declares neutrality

    18. World War I Alliances Military alliances (green = allies and yellow = central powers)

    19. Archduke Franz Ferdinand - Austria The war began when Serbians assassinated Archduke Ferdinand and Austria declared war (then other countries joined in)

    20. The US Road to War • Tensions between Germany and the US were caused by: • Link to Britain and France • Sub Warfare – sinking of Lusitania, Sussex, and Arabic • “Preparedness” and defense spending increase • Anti-German propaganda

    21. Election of 1916 Despite the growing signs of war, Wilson campaigned on the slogan “He Kept us Out of War” and his peace campaign along with his aid to Western and Southern farmers won him the election

    22. Declaring War and War Agencies • What factors led to the Declaration of War in 1917? (Zimmerman Telegram, Russian Revolution) • What new agencies were created to help organize the war effort and what did they do? (Selective Service Act and IQ Tests, WIB, Food Administration, US Railroad Administration, NWLB)

    23. Wilson eventually convinced Congress to declare war due to: • Shaping the post-war world • Breaking relations w/ Germany due to U-Boat attacks • Russian Revolution • Zimmerman Telegram Zimmerman Telegram

    24. Military Home Front The military increased with the Selective Service Act and the War Department (set up a draft and did IQ tests), and set up segregated units to go fight in the war The Draft Card

    25. The Wartime Economy War agencies at first went towards supplies for war (War Industries Board, Food Administration, Fuel Administration) and helped workers get concessions (better wages, 8 hour day) As the war progressed, the economy boomed as production increased

    26. War Propaganda and Dissenters • How did Wilson encourage propaganda use throughout the war? (William McAdoo and Liberty Bonds, George Creel and CPI, American Protective League) • How did dissenters put up resistance against the war? (Bryan, Addams, Rankin, Debs) • How did Wilson deal with dissenters? (Espionage and Sedition Acts, Schenck v. US)

    27. Funding and Support for War • Wilson set up the following to support the war funding and propaganda: • William McAdoo – Secretary of Treasury sells war bonds called “Liberty Bonds” to fund war (nearly 2/3 of war funded by bonds • George Creel – Committee on Public Information (CPI) created ads to promote American values and anti-German propaganda (the American Protection League, a part of this, created “Hate the Hun” posters)

    28. William McAdoo – Funding the War

    29. WWI Propaganda – George Creel

    30. War Advertising – Anti-German

    31. Suppressing War Opposition War dissenters were the peaceful progressives and anti-imperialists (Bryan, Addams, Rankin) as well as Socialists (Eugene V. Debs, who campaigned from prison) The Espionage and Sedition Acts were passed to imprison people who spoke out against the war and upheld by the court case Schenck v. US (necessary and proper clause)

    32. Areas Affected by War • Explain the effect of war on the different aspects of society: • Industry and Workers • African-Americans • Women (19th Amendment) • Health (Influenza Epidemic) • Progressivism

    33. Effects of World War I • American economy boomed, so farmers and workers have income rise significantly • Thousands of workers go to the cities to take industrial jobs, results in shortages of housing and schools (many of them Mexicans and African-Americans) • Reduced European immigration to the US (hard to travel) • African-Americans move North to avoid segregation laws, run into discrimination in the North and race riots • Women receive the vote (19th Amendment) and gain jobs during the war, but lose jobs to men coming home after the war

    34. 1918 Influenza Pandemic The worldwide influenza epidemic kills 30 million, harming US army camps and eventually US cities (as soldiers returned with it)

    35. World War I and Progressivism • Helps Progressivism: • Increases Prohibition argument – 18th Amendment is passed and there is propaganda against alcohol (most of which is German) • Anti-Prostitution campaign – to uphold a moral standing during the war • Helps progressives with labor issues • Hurts Progressivism: • Progress is stifled – fewer changes are made once war starts • Changing focus – less money to progressive activity, more towards the war

    36. World War I Battles and Armistice • What were the turning points of World War I and how was the US involved? (AEF, Marne River, Argonne Forest) • What was Wilson’s idea of an armistice with Germany and how did that differ with the eventual Treaty of Versailles? (Fourteen Point Plan, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Orlando, Rhineland, League of Nations)

    37. The American Expeditionary Force The AEF replaced the Russians on the battlefield just in time, as the Germans made their push They halted the German advance at the Marne River and helped the Allied offensive through the Argonne Forest

    38. Wilson’s Fourteen Point Plan • Wilson insisted on “peace without victory” and came up with a plan to peacefully shape the new world, which included: • Self-determination • Free trade • Reduced arms • League of Nations

    39. Versailles Peace Conference The peace conference in Versailles, however, did not approve of Wilson’s vision (except for the League of Nations) and proceeded to blame Germany for the war (stripping it of colonies, paying money, giving up territory to independent nations)

    40. The Aftermath at Home • How did the Senate respond to the Treaty of Versailles and what was Wilson’s reaction? (Irreconcilables and Reservationists) • What post-war events were behind the hysteria in the late 1910s? (Chicago Race Riots, Strikes of 1919, Red Scare and the Palmer Raids)

    41. The League of Nations Wilson included only Democrats in his trip to Versailles, which was a political mistake as he tried to sell the League of Nations to his own Senate (made up of irreconcilables and reservationists) – Lodge and his Republicans blocked Wilson, who was unwilling to compromise and attempted to gain public support with a national tour that left him tired and defeated (so the US did not become part of the League of Nations)

    42. Post-War Events • Race riots in Chicago – housing problems with returning soldiers • Labor strikes of 1919 – public fears socialist revolution (Russia) • “Red Scare” – labor strikes lead to unrest and unexplained incidents, prompting Mitchell Palmer to begin the Palmer Raids (gathering information on Radicals and arresting or deporting them) – it faded as Palmer lost credibility while hunting down communists