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World War II. War breaks out in Europe. Jan. 1933 Hitler PM in Germany & est. the 3 rd Reich Needs living space- lebensraum March 1938 marches into Austria and takes it (eagerly want to be part of G) German speaking pop. Here in & Czech.

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war breaks out in europe
War breaks out in Europe
  • Jan. 1933 Hitler PM in Germany & est. the 3rd Reich
  • Needs living space- lebensraum
  • March 1938 marches into Austria and takes it (eagerly want to be part of G)
  • German speaking pop. Here in & Czech.

http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/before/fascism.htm

hitler keeps moving
Hitler keeps moving…
  • Now wants the western part of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland)
  • GB & France vow to protect C.
  • 3 leaders meet in Munich- (M. Conference)
    • Hitler promises this will be the LAST
    • GB & France give him- appease Hitler to avoid war
  • Chamberlain- “peace in Europe achieved”

http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/before/fascism.htm

poland
Poland!
  • German & Russian speaking pop.
  • GB & F vow to protect these areas
  • A German invasion might bring in the Soviets too
  • August 1939- Stalin & Hitler sign a non-aggression pact
    • No war
    • Split Poland into 2
invasion of poland
Invasion of Poland
  • Sept. 1, 1939 German invasion of Poland
  • Blitzkrieg
    • Poland falls by the end of the month
  • Sept. 3rd France & GB declare war on Germany
early stages of war
Early stages of war
  • Maginot Line- fortifications to keep G. out
  • B & F wait for army-> “phony war”
  • Soviets take Eastern Poland & other Baltic states
    • Invades Finland too
  • Hitler
    • Invades Norway & Denmark (April 1940)
    • Better position to attack GB
    • May- Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg fall
hitler s success
Hitler’s success
  • France falls easily June 1940
  • France’s fate (3)
    • Germany controls N. France
    • Vichy gov’t in Southern France est.- a Nazi puppet gov’t
    • Charles de Gaulle refuses to accept this- sets up exile gov’t in GB
battle of britain
Battle of Britain
  • Air raid on London- wear down the morale of the people
  • Hitler carries on for months (1940)
  • Attempting to destroy the RAF
  • RAF uses radar to detect German planes
  • Hitler finally ends attack
  • Churchill’s rally

http://history.sandiego.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics2/81930bg.JPG

wwii america
WWII & America
  • Congress allows US to sell goods to F & GB
  • Sept. 1940- Axis powers est.
    • France gone & GB attacked by Hitler’s air raids
  • 1940 Congress approves $$ for defense
  • Pass a peace time draft in ’40
  • 1940 FDR warns America of trouble if GB falls and that the US has to help defeat the Axis powers
fdr draws closer to war
FDR draws closer to war
  • Lend-Lease Plan March 1941
  • USSR relations
    • Lend-lease program extended to USSR when Hitler invades there
  • German U-Boats in Atlantic to sink US ships carrying supplies to Europe
    • 1941 US Navy has permission to attack U-Boats in self-defense
even closer
Even closer…
  • Churchill & FDR secretly meet on USS Augusta
    • C- wants US involvement
  • Final result- Atlantic Charter
  • Joint declaration of war aims
    • Collective security
    • Disarmament
    • Self-determination
    • Economic cooperation
    • Freedom of seas
  • **basis of the United Nations
  • FDR waiting to go to war

http://www.ssa.gov/history/pics/acharter1.jpg

japan the pacific
Japan & the Pacific
  • Japanese:
    • Already controlling Manchuria
    • Invaded China
    • Taking E. colonial land (ex. Vietnam)
    • Wanted to control East Asia
  • US Response: cut off trade with Japan (need oil!!) and attempt peace talks
  • Americans aware of imminent Japanese attack (code breakers)
    • Didn’t know the potential location
    • Waiting for Japan to make the 1st step towards war
    • Dec. 6th all peace talks end

http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/images/before/japan.jpg

pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • Dec. 7, 1941 Japan attacks Hawaii
  • 2 hours-
    • 2, 403 killed
    • 1, 178 wounded
  • 8 battleships gone (luckily 3 aircraft carriers were out)
  • Dec. 7th FDR addresses Congress & asks for declaration of war
    • “a date which will live in infamy”
slide17

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/ph-oa.htmhttp://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/ph-oa.htm

us prepares for war
US prepares for war
  • 2 wars- Europe & Pacific
  • 5 million volunteer, but still need the draft
  • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
    • Female volunteers in non-combat jobs
    • Nurses, ambulance drivers, pilots, etc.
  • Minorities?
    • Should they fight??
    • 300K M-A
    • 1 Million A-A
    • 13k C-A
    • 33K J-A
    • 25K N-A

http://z.about.com/d/history1900s/1/0/l/S/wwiip24.jpg

japanese americans
Fear of another Japanese attack

1942 evacuate J. from HI

1942- FDR orders that all J-A in CA, WA, OR, &AZ to “relocation centers”

2/3rd Nisei

No evidence ever found, but FDR thought it was a security matter

Japanese Americans

http://gainesjunction.tamu.edu/issues/vol3num1/mjones/images/clip_image004.jpg

slide20

. . . Victims of war time hysteria, these people, two-thirds of whom were United States citizens, lived a bleak and humiliating life in tar paper barracks behind barbed wire and under armed guard . . .-Sign at the Minidoka Relocation Center

http://education.nebrwesleyan.edu/eisenhower/partsites/northeastpage/safarik/internmentpage.html

american workforce
American Workforce
  • Car industry focuses on war production (1942) and others follow
  • Many Americans working in these fields including women & minorities
  • Scientists organized under the OSRD
    • Focus on new technology
    • Pesticide, penicillin, radar, etc.
    • Manhattan Project
war time
War time!
  • Worries about prices increasing
  • Office of Price Administration (OPA)
    • Keep prices reasonable
  • War bonds
    • Org. drives to collect goods that could be recycled into war products
  • Rationing
    • Coupon books for scarce products for each family
time to fight
Time to fight!
  • Churchill & FDR meet for 3 weeks (Dec. 1941) to devise war strategy
    • Believe Germany & Italy posed a greater threat….focus on Japan after crippling Europe
  • Hitler tries to blockade GB- Starve them to death
    • Allied response- convoy system- very successful
battles
Stalingrad- Stalin urges Allies to create a 2nd front in Western Europe to relieve the Soviets

Allies not ready for that- go to Africa instead

Leningrad

North Africa

Operation Torch- Eisenhower

Desert Fox

Successful by ’43

FDR & Churchill meet in Africa to devise next stage

Italy!

Unconditional surrender

Battles
ve day
VE Day!
  • D-Day June 6th, 1944 Operation Overlord
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • April 25th, 1945
    • Soviets in Berlin
    • April 30th Hitler commits suicide
    • Week later the 3rd Reich surrenders to Eisenhower
    • May 8th- VE day!
    • April 12th FDR dies of a stroke in GA
    • Harry S. Truman new president
eisenhower
Eisenhower

http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/dday.htm

war in the pacific
War in the Pacific
  • Douglas MacArthur
  • Japanese control Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand & most of China
  • March 1942 American forces leave Philippines and promise to return
  • April 1942 air raid on Tokyo- Doolittle’s Raid
pacific battles
Pacific Battles
  • Coral Sea
  • Midway- turning point
  • Guadalcanal
  • Iwo Jima
  • Okinawa
manhattan project
Manhattan Project
  • Invasion on Japan- too costly
  • Head of project- Leslie Groves & Robert Oppenheimer
    • Practice test- July 16, 1945 (NM)
  • Late July- Truman warns Japan to surrender (refuse!)
    • August 6th- Hiroshima
    • August 9th- Nagasaki
  • Sept. 2nd official surrender by the emperor
meetings of the mind
Meetings of the Mind
  • Casablanca- FDR & Churchill
    • Jan. 1943
    • Invade Sicily
    • Want unconditional surrender
  • Tehran- FDR, C & S
    • Nov. 1943
    • B & A invade France & S invade Germany and eventually join Pacific war
meetings of the mind part ii
Meetings of the Mind Part II
  • Yalta- FDR, C, & S
    • Feb. 1945
    • Germany divided in occupation zones
    • Free elections in E. Europe (S- controlled)
    • S. enter Pacific War
    • Est. of United Nations
  • Potsdam- S, Truman, & Attlee
    • July- Aug. 1945
    • Warn Japan to surrender
    • Hold trials for Nazi leaders
after the war
After the War
  • America
    • 300 K died, 800K wounded
    • $320 billion (10X greater than WWI)
  • Congress accepts the UN- Proposed by US, USSR, GB, & China
  • US one of the few to leave the war without substantial damage to cities
  • Prosperous & Powerful