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why was the caf founded
Why was the CAF founded?
  • In 1950 negotiations started to bring together Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland into a federation. This would be a new part of the British empire which would share power between Britain and white settlers. It didn’t have as much British control as a traditional colony did, and it didn’t have as much freedom as a dominion did (like Canada or Australia who could do what they liked internally). This was as Britain still wanted to maintain its empire but realised it needed to be developed in new ways for it to continue from 1945 to 1951.
  • Andrew Cohen was a civil servant with a crucial role in the formation of this federation. He wanted to help black Africans, as he was Jewish and wanted to help minority groups of different races so nothing like the holocaust could happen again. He wanted to give one man one vote but knew that the white settlers would never accept this in the new federation and could break away and put into place an apartheid like system which could be worse than South Africa. So he pushed for it to become a federation with shared power so that Britain could stay involved to try to help black Africans there more than leaving them to the wishes of the white settlers. Cohen stopped southern Rhodesia dominating the new federation as he knew the Southern Rhodesian settlers would put into place a harsh system of apartheid.
  • The CAF was founded at the same time as terrible things happened in South Africa from Apartheid

Highlight the key words and answer this question in your own words in a paragraph.

how and why did the caf dissolve
How and why did the CAF dissolve?
  • Initially the CAF made a lot of money , in 1953 its GDP was £350 million, in 1955 £450 million
  • However, the CAF was always an unnatural federation. Southern Rhodesia fiercely opposed more rights or black Africans, whilst Northern Rhodesians and Nyasaland were more sympathetic. The regions were very different economically – Northern Rhodesia made a lot of money from copper mines, Southern Rhodesia from farming and Nyasaland was comparatively poor. It’s system of government was inefficient was a lot of overlapping departments.
  • Britain was under pressure from countries in the Commonwealth like Ghana saying that Britain should make sure one man one vote is introduced in the CAF. Ghana even threatened to stop trading with Britain in the future.
  • White settlers treated the black Africans badly, by taking arable land, and with a second influx after WWII making things worse as more British people moved there to make money
  • Black Nationalists campaigned against multiracialism more and more, especially in Nyasaland
  • In 1956 Northern Rhodesia’s governor wrote a letter to Britain criticising the federation and it’s PM Welensky. In 1958 someone showed Welensky the letter and relations within the CAF deteriorated.
  • By 1958 Britain decided the federation may be unviable, they set up a commission to research it. Macmillan gave his winds of change speech in the early 1960s. In 1963 the Labour undersecretary for the colonies secretary in 1964, Macleod, strongly supported decolonisation
  • The victoria Falls conference was held in 1963 and in July the CAF was dissolved with each country temporarily becoming a colony again so that they had time to sort out new governments. In 1964 Northern Rhodesia became independent as Zambia and Nyasaland became independent as Malawi as they both agreed to one man one vote, which was one of Britain’s conditions of independence. Britain didn’t give Southern Rhodesia independence as they wouldn’t agree to one man one vote – they wanted to keep multiracialism.

Highlight the key words and answer this question in your own words in a paragraph.

why was the udi announced and what was its impact
Why was the UDI announced and what was its impact?
  • One year after Zambia and Malawi got independence the white settlers in Southern Rhodesia had had enough – they said they deserved it too. They held a referendum which supported a UDI.
  • The British PM, Wilson, didn’t think they would break away as so many people would stop trading with them it would harm Southern Rhodesia too much, so to keep their relations strong said that he wouldn’t use force against Britain’s ‘kith and kin’ in Southern Rhodesia. Wilson also didn’t want to annoy South Africa, who were allies with Southern Rhodesia, as they were an important trading partner for Britain. Southern Rhodesia was encouraged by this.
  • They announced their own independence in 1965, in a document called the Unilateral Declaration of Independence, with a multiracial voting system. It seemed like Cohen and Britain’s hard work to avoid another apartheid like system in Africa had been in vein. Rhodesia was criticised internationally for its racist country and Britain and the Labour government was criticised for letting it become independent.

Highlight the key words and answer this question in your own words in a paragraph.

key dates what happened in southern africa on these dates
Key Dates – What happened in Southern Africa on these dates?
  • 1950 – negotiations start for CAF
  • 1953 – CAF established
  • 1963 – Victoria Falls – agree to dissolve and each country becomes a colony again temporarily so they can get ready independence
  • 1964 – Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland become independent
  • 1965 – Southern Rhodesia announces/declares its own independence without Britain approving

Why did Zambia and Malawi change their names?

Why did Rhodesia name itself Rhodesia?


How were British and Rhodesian relations affected by the UDI?C aim – to explain how Britain and Rhodesia were affected internationally by the UDIB aim – to explain the changed in British, Rhodesian and British-Rhodesian relations by the UDIA/A* aim – to explain the shifts in international relations as a result of the UDI?

How did the UDI make Britain look?

How did it make Rhodesia look?

Who in the international community would be bothered about the UDI and what may they think?

british relations
British relations

Why did they do this after the UDI?

How would this make them look on an international stage?

  • Decolonised even more quickly – even economically strong areas like Singapore and Aden in the late 1960s
  • Labour followed its ‘no independence before black majority rule’ even more strictly
  • The Commonwealth criticised Britain for racist immigration policies, lack of restrictions on South Africa and refusing to stop oil getting to Southern Rhodesia through Mozambique
  • The Labour government gave planes to Zambia
  • Wilson said the UDI would be short lived
rhodesian relations

What sanctions were there?

Were these sanctions effective?

How would these affect Rhodesia?

How would you describe Rhodesia’s international relations?

Rhodesian relations

UN officials branded Ian Smith's government as an "illegal racist minority regime“and called on member states to sever economic ties with Rhodesia, recommending sanctions on petroleum products and military hardware.In December 1966, these measures became mandatory, extending to bar the purchase of Rhodesian tobacco, chrome, copper, asbestos, sugar, meat, and hides.

In 1966 Britain decided to from an embargo on Mozambique to stop oil getting into Rhodesia. They did not want to start a war with Southern Rhodesia though.

Some nations, such as Switzerland, and West Germany, which were not UN members, conducted business legally with Rhodesia - the latter remained the Smith government's largest trading partner in Western Europe until 1973.Japan continued to accept more Rhodesian exports than any other nation, and Iran provided oil. The Portuguese government marketed Rhodesian products as its own, via false certificates of origin and disguised trade channels.South Africa openly refused to observe the UN sanctions. A 1971 amendment passed in the United States permitted American firms to go on importing Rhodesian chromium and nickel as normal.

Despite the poor showing of sanctions, Rhodesia found it nearly impossible to obtain diplomatic recognition abroad. In 1970, the U.S. government had made it clear that the UDI would not be recognised "under [any] circumstances".Even Smith's ideological allies in Pretoria, although sympathetic, failed to recognise the new country on an equal level.


What were British-Rhodesian relations like from 1966 to 1969?

In 1966 Ian Smith and Harold Wilson met on HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean after Wilson had enforced the oil embargo on Rhodesia for a few months. Britain still said one man one vote must be enforced. The Rhodesians refused to accept this and the talks broke down.

They then met in 1968 on HMS Fearless off Gibraltar, for similar reasons, and the talks again broke down.

By 1969 the Rhodesians decided they could never work with the British again. At this point they still had some minor trading ties – even the British enforced sanctions- and the British queen was officially the head of their constitution as they hoped to reach an agreement with the British government on voting. They held a referendum on whether to cut all these remaining ties. It passed with a large majority and all remaining ties were cut.




What were British-Rhodesian relations like?

In 1971 the British foreign secretary Douglas-Home arrived in the Rhodesian capital after leaders of neighbouring countries felt threatened with the amount of Chinese and Soviet weapons coming through their countries. Smith agreed to give greater rights to Black Africans in return for Britain accepting the new Rhodesian constitution without the queen as the head of government and with a multiracial voting system, which the neighbouring countries were also happy with. However, when the British questioned the black Rhodesians they found, unsurprisingly that none of them believed this new agreement. The National front (white settler political party in Rhodesia) refused to put it to a universal referendum. Instead a committee was appointed to investigate the public’s opinion of it. Because none of the black Rhodesians believed it this was noted as a negative perception of the agreement. Based on this white minority rule stayed.

What were British-Rhodesian relations like?


How were British and Rhodesian relations affected by the UDI?C aim – to explain how Britain and Rhodesia were affected internationally by the UDIB aim – to explain the changed in British, Rhodesian and British-Rhodesian relations by the UDIA/A* aim – to explain the shifts in international relations as a result of the UDI?

C – How was Britain and Rhodesia affected internationally by the UDI?

B – How did British and Rhodesian international relations and British-Rhodesian relations change from the UDI and its aftermath?

A/A* - What changes were there in international relations from the UDI?

homework due monday
Homework – Due Monday
  • Those of you who were away last week
    • How far do you agree that the growth of African nationalism in the 1950s and 1960s was encouraged mainly by Britain’s declining prestige? 30 mark exam question
    • Make a timeline from the chapter I have handed out
  • Write a short newspaper article for the following from a Rhodesian or British perspective
    • UDI in 1965
    • HMS Fearless meeting 1968
    • 1971 after the committee refused to pass greater rights for black Africans
  • Why did white minority rule stay in Rhodesia? C list reasons. B and above explain your answer.