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Chapter 7. Section II Britain led in the rise of industry. Recap. Britain had a great food supply, large work force, and plenty of people with money to invest. Working from home. Prior to the factories…

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Chapter 7

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Section II

Britain led in the rise of industry

  • Britain had a great food supply, large work force, and plenty of people with money to invest
working from home
Working from home
  • Prior to the factories…
  • Cottage industries: Small scale industry carried on at home by family members usually using their own equipment
  • Textiles followed many steps
    • Merchant delivered raw materials
    • Weavers process raw materials
      • Producing a finished product
    • Merchant picks up finished project
advantage and disadvantages
Advantage and disadvantages
  • Create own work schedule
  • Family live revolved around the business
    • If parent was sick, children could pick up slack
  • Disadvantages
    • Fire/flood would destroy home and business
    • Cloth making required skill
    • Adults had physical strength to complete jobs
inventions revolutionized the textile industry
Inventions revolutionized the textile industry
  • Britain leading sheep raising area in the world
    • Raw wool and wool cloth Britain's main exports
  • All cloth produced by hand
    • Spinners and weavers (primarily women)
      • Worked in homes using spinning wheels and hand looms
  • Britain also produced linen and cotton
  • Demand for clothing was too great to continue producing by hand
six major inventions
Six Major Inventions
  • 1773 John Kay, a watchmaker, invented the flying shuttle
    • A shuttle that moved back and forth on wheels, with yarn attached
spinning jenny
Spinning Jenny
  • James Hargreaves
    • 1764 invented the Spinning Jenny
      • Named in honor of his wife
    • Allowed spinners to work 6 or 8 threads at at time
      • Later models could spin 80 threads
richard arkwright
Richard Arkwright
  • 1769 invented the water frame
    • Used water power from fast flowing streams to drive spinning wheels
samuel crompton
Samuel Crompton
  • 1779 combined the Spinning Jenny and the Water frame known as the spinning mule
  • Mule produced stronger and finer thread
  • Machine was too large and expensive for cottage industry
edmund cartwright
Edmund Cartwright
  • 1785 Edmund invented the power loom
    • Ran by water
    • Inefficient but steady improvements by 1813 more than 2000 were in use. By 1833 more than 100,000 in large factories
  • By late 1700’s spinners and weavers working so fast, cotton growers could not keep up
cotton industry
Cotton Industry
  • Britain's cotton came from Southern parts of the United States
    • North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia
  • Most time consuming process was removing the seed from raw cotton
  • 1793 Eli Whitney, American, invents the cotton gin
    • Allowed slaves to pick ten times amount of cotton per day
cotton production
Cotton Production
  • 1791 U.S produced 9000 bails of cotton
  • 1831 produced 987000 bails
    • Enough to keep pace with production in Britain
  • Cotton cloth production in Britain
    • 40 million yards in 1785
    • 2 billion yards in 1850 (5000% increase)
watt improved the steam engine
Watt improved the steam engine
  • Factories biggest drawback?
  • 1705 coal miners were using steam pumps to remove water from deep mine shafts
  • James Watt 1765 discovered how to make engine more productive
    • Financially backed by partner Matthew Boulton
  • By 1800, 500 steam engines working in factories
factories and factory towns
Factories and Factory Towns
  • Factory: A large building where goods are manufactured
  • Factories needed waterpower so built near fast running streams or waterfalls
  • Work in factory divided into simpler steps
    • Allowing for children to do more work
    • Preferred hiring children for lower wages
      • Majority of work force was still adult men

Dangerous for children

    • Weaving loom threads would snap or break. Children with small hands could reach in machine while the machine was still running
  • Workdays
    • Consisted of 12 hour shifts
    • No air ventilation
    • Poor sanitation
    • Inadequate food

Factory Towns grew around large factories

    • Some companies provided housing for farmers coming from countryside
  • Coal Towns
    • Hazard of burning coal
    • Soot blanketed towns
    • Sulfur and other poison released in air
  • Smelting factories
    • Labeled as “black country”