World War II. Clockwise from top : Allied landing on Normandy beaches on D-Day, the gate of a Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, the Nagasaki atom bomb, and a Nazi parade in 1939. Chapter 11.
Clockwise from top: Allied landing
on Normandy beaches on D-Day,
the gate of a Nazi concentration
camp at Auschwitz, Red Army
soldiers raising the Soviet flag over
the Reichstag in Berlin, the
Nagasaki atom bomb, and a Nazi
parade in 1939.
Map showing German territory lost and the
Rhineland DMZ, 1919.
Dictator Benito Mussolini addresses his followers
A. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) – Italian fascist.
1. Fascism – political philosophy that glorifies the state over the individual; strong central gov’t led by dictator.
Totalitarian state – gov’t aims to control
the political, economic, social,
intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens.
Established the first European fascist movement.
techniques and high-speed modern communications.
ignored individual rights.
King Victor Emmanuel III.
a) 1926, IL Duce
activities & enforce gov’t policies (not as brutal as Nazi’s).
or the state; given powers to make laws by decree; police given
Ancient Buddha symbol
Still used by
Nordic symbol of Thor.
Hitler was in love with his niece, Angela Raubal (whom he
called Geli). When Geli got pregnant by a Jewish man,
she was found dead (gun shot) in Hitlers apartment.
Hitler’s paternal grandfather was Jewish (documents burned
in Braunau am Inn, Austria, during target practice).
"The Hidden Hitler." Professor Machtan’s documented the allegations made to the Munich Police in the early 1920s by a former soldier colleague that Hitler was bisexual.
Samuel Igra’s Germany's National Vice alleged Hitler "had been a male prostitute in Vienna … from 1907 to 1912, and …in Munich from 1912 to 1914" (Igra:67).
Blamed his not getting accepted into the Academy of Arts on the several Jews on the Admissions board (read anti-Semite authors).
In beginning, was a bad speaker, but coached by an Austrian Jew.
Was addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates by 1943.
Had Parkinson’s disease.
Hitler had an abusive father who beat him, an adoring mother, had an
inferiority complex, didn’t like his looks, and wanted to be a priest as a child.
1. Mein Kampf – wrote his ideas in jail.
a) Aryan – linguistic term.
← People speaking
“… mass meetings are important
because individuals who feel weak
and uncertain become intoxicated
with the power of the group.”
- Hitler, Mein Kampf
century Germans and Scandinavians.
mass spectacles, and propaganda to build Nazi empire.
Aryan racial superiority – (purpose of totalitarian state) to
dominate Europe and the world for generations.
Aryans thought they were
descendants of Gods!
Third Reich – The third German Empire.
1st Reich was Holy Roman Empire.
2nd Reich was German Empire of 1871 to 1918.
3rd Reich was supposed to last 1,000 years
but only lasted during Nazi reign (1933-1945).
until he was coached by an Austrian Jew.
Now known as a powerful orator, using
emotion, theatrics, and voice commands
to help in propaganda.
1936 Nuremberg rally.
Large Nazi rallies were held to increase
morale and spread ideas.
Hitler sworn in as Chancellor, 1933
3. 1933, Hitler made Chancellor.
a) Reichstag Fire Decree – ended civil rights.
b) Enabling Act – Hitler’s “legal seizure” of power (dictator).
Mar 6 (Elections)
of their uniform). SA was led by Ernst Rohm & helped Hitler rise to power.
Feb 27, 1933, seven
days before elections
that gave Nazi’s a
majority. The fire was
blamed on Communists.
Hitler’s ideas were based on
racism/bigotry and German
nationalism. His totalitarian
state was widely accepted, but
German Jews and minorities
Hitler no longer needed Reichstag or President Hindenburg; was a dictator.
Moved quickly to bring all institutions under Nazi control.
Civil Service purged of Jews and democratic elements.
Trade Unions were dissolved.
All other political parties were abolished.
organized an attack on the
Institute of Sex Research, their
archives were publicly hauled
out and burned in the streets
of the Opernplatz (Bebelplatz).
Around 20,000 books and
journals, and 5,000 images
Among the volumes destroyed
were works by Thomas Mann,
Karl Marx, Ernest Hemmingway,
Upton Sinclair, Emile Zola,
H.G. Wells, Signmund Freud,
Helen Keller, Marcel Proust,
and Jack London.
Also seized were the Institute's
extensive lists of names and
addresses of LGBT people.
In the midst of the burning,
Joseph Goebbels, Propaganda
Minister, gave a political
speech to a crowd of around
May 10, 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works of
Jewish authors and other considered "un-German."
7-months after Chancellor; totalitarian state.
Hindenburg died in 1934; president abolished.
Public officers and soldiers required to take
an oath of loyalty to Hitler as the Führer “leader.”
Ernst Rohm, leader of the Nazi SA (Nazi militia) was arrested by Hitler himself on the Night of Long Knives, then murdered by two SS men for plotting a supposed coup and being gay.
As many as 400 people were killed during the purge. Hitler explained why he had not relied on the courts to deal with the conspirators: “In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I become the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason.”
The Night of the Long Knives was a turning point
in the history of Hitler's Germany. Hitler had made
it clear that he was the supreme ruler of Germany
who had the right to be judge and jury, and had
the power to decide whether people lived or died.
Set-up & directed the SS.
a) Concentration camps –
Large prison camps.
People sent to the camps:
- Political opponents / critics
- Jehovah Witness
- Dissenting clergy
- Gay men
- Forced laborers
- Mentally / physically challenged
Over 400,000 people
were medically sterilized
by the Nazis!
His chief goal was to further the German master race.
Leading organizer of the Holocaust; officer in charge of the concentration camps.
Directed medical experiments on gay prisoners (homophobic).
-- Adolf Hitler
SS (Schutzstaffeln, Gestapo “Guard Squadrons”, black shirts) – originally as Hitler’s bodyguards.
Controlled the secret police force (Gestapo) and regular police force.
Based on 2 principles: terror and ideology.
Terror included repression and murder – secret & regular police, concentration camps, and later had execution squads & death camps.
Found guilty of war crimes during the Nuremburg trials.
charge of all the concentration
camps and organized
People with four German grandparents (white circles on the chart) were of "German blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or more Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). One or two Jewish grandparents made someone "mixed blood." The Nazis used the religious observance of a person's grandparents to determine their race.
1935 chart from Nazi
Germany used to explain
the Nuremberg Laws.
existed from 1922 to 1945. The Hitler Youth was the second oldest paramilitary
Nazi group, founded one year after the Sturmabteilung (SA) Stormtroopers.
A. First Steps.
1. Violate the Treaty of Versailles.
German troops march
into the Rhineland,
Supposed to be
demilitarized by the
Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial domination laid the foundation
for aggressive expansion outside Germany.
Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. During World
War II, it consisted of the army (Heer), the navy
(Kriegsmarine), the air force (Luftwaffe), and
Waffen SS (Combat arm of the SS).
German Panzer VI; Porsche Design.
A stylized version of the
Iron Cross, the emblem
of the Wehrmacht.
Day of the Wehrmacht
German Stuka (dive bomber)
Messerschmitt Bf 109
Messerschmitt Me 264 (long range bomber)
Bf 162 (light
Owens won 4 Gold medals (100m, 200m,
long jump, & 4x100team).
Hitler refused to acknowledge American
Jesse Owens after his win.
3. Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) –
Germ and Japan agree to
Mussolini wanted to create a new Roman Empire, so invaded Ethiopia.
After fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia in Oct 1935, England and France
condemned action and pushed Italy to become closer to Germany.
Emperor Hailie Selassie of Ethiopia
Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. Jewish
homes and stores were ransacked in a thousand German cities,
towns and villages, as ordinary citizens and stormtroopers
destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets
covered in smashed windows — the origin of the name
"Night of Broken Glass.“ Jews were beaten to death;
30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps;
and 1,668 synagogues ransacked or set on fire.
a) ‘Anschluss’ – Austria is annexed by Germany.
March 12,1938: Nazis open
the crossing point and
Austria no longer exists.
Hitler in the streets
of Vienna 1938.
in reinforcing law and order.
a) Reps agreed to demands.
Hess, Hitler, Ciano,
Himmler and Keitel
at the Munich
“Peace for our time”
Appeasement to Germany to avoid conflict keep peace.
Hitler broke agreement and annexed all of Czechoslovakia.
“the greatest German of them all.”
angrily greet the Nazis
Prague, Czech, 1939.
(1939) – Germ and Soviet Union
agree not to attack each other.
a) Germ invades Poland (Sep 1, 1939). b) Br & Fr declare war on Germ 2
Hitler wanted the Polish port of Danzig.
He didn’t think West would fight for Poland.
The Second Sino-Japanese War began in 1937, when Japan attacked deep
into China from its foothold in Manchuria (occupied Manchuria since 1931).
Nanking Massacre - The infamous war crime incident committed by the
Japanese military in and around Nanking, China, after it fell to the Imperial
Japanese Army on December 13, 1937. The period of carnage lasted for
six weeks, until early February 1938, as approx. 300,000 civilians were raped
and murdered as Nanking was looted and burned.
Japan joins Germ & Ita.
In 1940, during World War II, the military alliance of Italy and Germany—the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis—was extended to include Japan and became the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. The three countries and their allies, known collectively as the Axis Powers, fought against the Allied Powers in the war. Here, Japanese and Italian emissaries accompany German dictator Adolf Hitler.
III. The Course of WWII.
A. Poland invaded (Sep 1, 1939).
1. Blitzkrieg – “lightening war.”
2. Poland divided between Germ & Soviet Union on Sep 28.
► The Germans launched their attacks
on Poland with air assaults. German
Stuka bombers were instrumental in
leading the assault and forcing the
eventual surrender of Warsaw.
► England and France declare war on
Germany on Sep 3, 1939.
Soviet and German officers meeting
after the invasion of Poland.
is commonly known as "Blitzkrieg" is close
cooperation between infantry and tanks.
German troops storm into Poland just over a week after the Nonaggression Pact was
Signed, starting World War II. Soviet forces take over the Baltic states and invade Finland. Stalin's treaty serves to keep Moscow out of the greater war, while the Nazis conquer much of Western Europe.
to be invented
as a symbol
of unity and
1. Through Luxembourg & Ardennes
a) Skipped “Maginot Line.”
private boats rescued 350,000 Allied troops (mostly British); 40K surrendered.
Troops cheer with relief
when they arrive in Dover, England, after the perilous
Channel crossing, where they faced attacks by German planes, U-boats and mines.
The Franco-German armistice, or Vichy regime,
was the Nazi-subordinate French puppet government
Between 1940 – 1944. The Franco-German armistice
divided France into two zones: one under German military occupation and one under nominal French
control (the SE two-fifths of the country). The Vichy regime willfully collaborated with Nazi Germany, and is the only state of Europe which did so in such a voluntary extent: raids to capture Jews and other "undesirables"
were organized by the French police.
surrendered to Hitler in 1940.
Hitler in Paris, France.
for invading England.
The Battle of Britain (July 9 to October 31, 1940) was the attempt by the
German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF),
before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain during WWII. The RAF
needed to be neutralized before Germany could launch a successful
amphibious assault on the British Isles.
A London air raid shelter.
had 20 min’s
A German Heinkel He 111 bomber over
London on Sep. 7, 1940.
nights – not much damage but a blow to German morale and security.
British cities to crush morale (bombed every night but one for two months).
The subway shelters.
Customers calmly search the
shelves of a bombed-out
bookshop in London.
London on Sep. 7, 1940.
we shall fight on the landing
grounds, in the fields, in the
streets, and in the hills. We
shall never surrender.”
- Winston Churchill
Churchill and FDR at sea during the Atlantic Charter talks
The Lend-Lease Act (1941) was the program under which the US supplied
Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with
$50.1 billion (nearly $700 billion at 2007 prices) of war materials between
1941 and 1945. It began in Mar 1941, nine months before Pearl Harbor.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
signs H.R. 1776, the Lend-Lease
Act to give aid to Britain and China.
TheNeutrality Acts (1930’s) were a series of laws passed by the US in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that led to WWII. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following its costly involvement in WWI, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts, especially in Europe.
(groups) to attack.
in the open!
HMS Bulldog disabled U-110 (dead in the water); German captain thought Bulldog was going to ram her so they left secret material onboard; British got the enigma machine and code books; Germans never knew of security breach.
Operation Drumbeat – German U-Boats patrolled Am east coast (Jan-Aug, 1942), sunk 609 ships (1/4 of all ships sunk by subs in war and lost only 22 U-boats), “second happy time.”
Germany lost 789 U-Boats and 70% of sub force during war (largest percent of forces).
Sunk approx 3,000 Br and Am ships during war.
Allied convoy during
the Battle of the
Atlantic (April 1941).
Hitler and Regent Horthy of Hungary
observing U-Boat maneuvers in 1938.
Officers on the bridge of an escorting
British destroyer keep a sharp look out
for enemy submarines, October 1941.
British and American forces invaded North Africa and forced
the German and Italian troops to surrender in May 1943.
Yugoslavia (Apr 1941).
Jews in Greece are arrested & the Nazi-
controlled press tries to turn the public
against the Jews. The Germans begin
deportations in March, 1943, sending Jews
to concentration camps like Auschwitz on a
long journey packed in box-cars like sardines.
Nazis at the Acropolis in
Athens, Greece (1941).
was unable to defeat Greece (1940) and exposed the southern flank to
British air bases in Greece.
of occupied Europe was run by German officials with local collaborators.
“Operation Barbarosa” (1941 - 1945)
Pact, 1941 poster.
1. Turning point of WWII.
The Battle of Stalingrad was a battle between Germany and the Soviet Union for the Soviet city of Stalingrad that took place between August 21, 1942 and February 2, 1943, as part of WWII. It was the turning point of WWII in Europe and was arguably
the bloodiest battle in human history, with combined casualties estimated above 1.7 million. The battle was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties on both sides.
Stalingrad is a major industrial
center on the Volga River.
life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day.
Hitler wanted to exterminate the “Slavik horde.”
Hitler gambled on taking the offensive using newly developed heavy tanks, but were soundly defeated by the Soviets.
Stalingrad was symbolic significance for both Hitler & Stalin/Russians.
City turned into armed encampment, civilians dug trenches & tank traps, etc.
German troops were stopped, encircled, & supply lines cut off in the winter.
The first Germ Field Marshall (only 1 day) to surrender in history.
Russians have the numbers and the will to defend their homeland.
Stalin's son, Yakov Dzhugashvili captured
by the Germans. Stalin refused a trade with
the Germans, stating “I have no son.”
ruins of Stalingrad, 1942.
“Soldiers will fight harder for a
live city than an empty one.”
-- Josef Stalin
The Battle of Stalingrad (199 days) resulted in an estimated total of 1.7 to 2 million
Axis and Soviet casualties, making it by far the deadliest in human history.
The entire German Sixth Army (considered the best Germ troops) surrendered.
Germany never recovered from the losses in the Soviet Union.
Locations of Japanese forces in November 1941
General Hideki Tojo
1940 – U.S. blocks resources from going to Japan; Japan signs pact w/ Germany.
a surprise attack on
the U.S. naval base at
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
At the time, the base
held nearly the entire
U.S. Pacific fleet.
18 American ships
were sunk, including
naval capability. Over
2,400 Americans were
killed, and another
the attack shows vulnerable U.S. battleships.
USS Arizona, 3 days later.
“December 7, 1941,
a date which will
live in infamy."
FDR signs the
war against Japan
on Dec 8, 1941.
Feb 15, 1942.
December 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway.December 8, 1941 - U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand.December 10, 1941 - Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam.December 11, 1941 - Japanese invade Burma.December 16, 1941 - Japanese invade British Borneo.December 18, 1941 - Japanese invade Hong Kong.December 22, 1941 - Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines.December 23, 1941 - General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan; Japanese take Wake Island.December 25, 1941 - British surrender at Hong Kong.December 27, 1941 - Japanese bomb Manila.