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World War II. Clockwise from top : Allied landing on Normandy beaches on D-Day, the gate of a Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, the Nagasaki atom bomb, and a Nazi parade in 1939. Chapter 11.

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world war ii

World War II

Clockwise from top: Allied landing

on Normandy beaches on D-Day,

the gate of a Nazi concentration

camp at Auschwitz, Red Army

soldiers raising the Soviet flag over

the Reichstag in Berlin, the

Nagasaki atom bomb, and a Nazi

parade in 1939.

Chapter 11

the versailles treaty
The Versailles Treaty
  • Land.
  • Reparations.
  • War guilt.
  • League of Nations.
the versailles treaty continued
The Versailles Treaty (continued)
  • German army reduced
  • Germany barred from having tanks, an air force, or submarines
  • Occupied DMZ west of the Rhineland

Map showing German territory lost and the

Rhineland DMZ, 1919.










Pres. Franklin

D. Roosevelt

V.I. Lenin





















Gen. Secretary,

Joseph Stalin


Pres. Harry

S. Truman



Dictator Benito Mussolini addresses his followers

I. The Leaders.

A. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) – Italian fascist.

1. Fascism – political philosophy that glorifies the state over the individual; strong central gov’t led by dictator.

Totalitarian state – gov’t aims to control

the political, economic, social,

intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens.

  • Depression, high inflation, and agricultural & industrial strikes in Italy.
  • Started out as a socialist, but expelled from party, and then started Fascism.
  • In 1919, Mussolini creates political group: the League of Combat.

 Established the first European fascist movement.


2. “Black Shirts” – armed fascists.

  • Want to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjects with propaganda

techniques and high-speed modern communications.

  • Led by single person and single party; rejected limited gov’t power and

ignored individual rights.

  •  Used the “Black Shirts” to attack socialist offices and newspapers and used
  • violence to break up strikes.
  • Middle class fear of socialism, communism, and disorder pushed them to fascism.
  • Used Nationalism and patriotic feelings to gain support.

3. Prime Minister – Appointed in 1922 by

King Victor Emmanuel III.

a) 1926, IL Duce

“The Leader.”

  •  1926, Fascists outlawed other parties.
  • 1926, established secret police (OVRA) to monitor political

activities & enforce gov’t policies (not as brutal as Nazi’s).

  •  Controlled all media for propaganda “Mussolini Is Always Right.”
  •  Rewrote textbooks to reflect fascist propaganda.
  •  Maintained traditional attitudes to women as “fundamental mission in life.”
  •  1929, recognized sovereignty of Vatican City and only religion and gave the
  • Church money (Church also recognized Italy and urged support for fascism).
  • Gov’t suspended any publication that criticized the Catholic Church, monarchy,

or the state; given powers to make laws by decree; police given

  • unrestricted authority to arrest & jail anyone for nonpolitical / political crimes.
  • Hitler was student and admirer of Mussolini.
  •  Never had total control like Hitler/Stalin (Muss retained some old institutions/
  • independent armed forces were maintained; Victor Emmanuel was still king.
rise of the nazis
Rise of the Nazis
  • Germany’s economic problems.
  • Political instability.
  • Fascism.
  • National Socialist German Workers’ Party.
The Swastika has been used as religious symbols long before Hitler used it to represent Fascism.

Ancient Buddha symbol

In China.

Still used by

Hindus today.

Nordic symbol of Thor.

Nazi flag.


Rumors about Hitler

 Hitler was in love with his niece, Angela Raubal (whom he

called Geli). When Geli got pregnant by a Jewish man,

she was found dead (gun shot) in Hitlers apartment.

 Hitler’s paternal grandfather was Jewish (documents burned

in Braunau am Inn, Austria, during target practice).

 "The Hidden Hitler." Professor Machtan’s documented the allegations made to the Munich Police in the early 1920s by a former soldier colleague that Hitler was bisexual.

 Samuel Igra’s Germany's National Vice alleged Hitler "had been a male prostitute in Vienna … from 1907 to 1912, and …in Munich from 1912 to 1914" (Igra:67).

 Blamed his not getting accepted into the Academy of Arts on the several Jews on the Admissions board (read anti-Semite authors).

 In beginning, was a bad speaker, but coached by an Austrian Jew.

 Was addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates by 1943.

 Had Parkinson’s disease.

Hitler had an abusive father who beat him, an adoring mother, had an

inferiority complex, didn’t like his looks, and wanted to be a priest as a child.

B. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945).

1. Mein Kampf – wrote his ideas in jail.

a) Aryan – linguistic term.

← People speaking



“… mass meetings are important

because individuals who feel weak

and uncertain become intoxicated

with the power of the group.”

- Hitler, Mein Kampf

  •  Born in Austria but had a mystical belief in the German nation.
  •  Vienna (1907) to be an artist; rejected by Vienna Academy of Fine Arts.
  • Spent 4-years on the Western Front in WWI.
  • 1919, involved in politics.
  • 1921, forms National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi).
  • Beer Hall Putsch (1923) – failed uprising against the gov’t; quickly crushed; jailed.
  • Mein Kampf – misused “Aryan” to identify w/ ancient Greeks & Romans and 20th

century Germans and Scandinavians.


Nazi State - Hitler used anti-Semitism, economic policy, terror,

mass spectacles, and propaganda to build Nazi empire.

Aryan racial superiority – (purpose of totalitarian state) to

dominate Europe and the world for generations.

Aryans thought they were

descendants of Gods!

Third Reich – The third German Empire.

 1st Reich was Holy Roman Empire.

 2nd Reich was German Empire of 1871 to 1918.

 3rd Reich was supposed to last 1,000 years

but only lasted during Nazi reign (1933-1945).


At first, Hitler was a terrible public speaker

until he was coached by an Austrian Jew.

Now known as a powerful orator, using

emotion, theatrics, and voice commands

to help in propaganda.

the nazis promoted a view of germany as surrounded by enemies and threatened on all sides
The Nazis promoted a view of Germany as surrounded by enemies and threatened on all sides

2. 1929, Nazi’s had national organization.

1936 Nuremberg rally.

Large Nazi rallies were held to increase

morale and spread ideas.

the nazis gain power
The Nazis Gain Power

Hitler sworn in as Chancellor, 1933


Feb 28, 1933 

3. 1933, Hitler made Chancellor.

a) Reichstag Fire Decree – ended civil rights.

b) Enabling Act – Hitler’s “legal seizure” of power (dictator).

Mar 6 (Elections)

Mar 23 

  • Created a militia known as the SA (Storm Troopers, Brown shirts after the color

of their uniform). SA was led by Ernst Rohm & helped Hitler rise to power.

  •  1932, had 800,000 members & largest party in the Reichstag (German parliament).
  • 1932, six million Germans unemployed; made extremist parties attractive.
  •  Appeals of national pride, national honor, and traditional militarism struck an
  • emotional cord with listeners ( angry over Treaty of Versailles / Depression).
  •  1933, Hindenburg gave in, Hitler creates new gov’t: “Create a new Germany.”
  • Reichstag had little power.
  • Enabling Act - ignore the Constitution for 4-years to deal with countries problems.
  •  Hitler supported by right-wing elites: industrial leaders, landed aristocrats,
  • higher bureaucrats & military officers to save them from Communism.

The Reichstag fire on

Feb 27, 1933, seven

days before elections

that gave Nazi’s a

majority. The fire was

blamed on Communists.

The SA.

Hitler’s ideas were based on

racism/bigotry and German

nationalism. His totalitarian

state was widely accepted, but

German Jews and minorities

were prosecuted.

 Hitler no longer needed Reichstag or President Hindenburg; was a dictator.

 Moved quickly to bring all institutions under Nazi control.

 Civil Service purged of Jews and democratic elements.

 Trade Unions were dissolved.

 All other political parties were abolished.


A few days after the Nazi Youth

organized an attack on the

Institute of Sex Research, their

archives were publicly hauled

out and burned in the streets

of the Opernplatz (Bebelplatz).

Around 20,000 books and

journals, and 5,000 images

were destroyed.

Among the volumes destroyed

were works by Thomas Mann,

Karl Marx, Ernest Hemmingway,

Upton Sinclair, Emile Zola,

H.G. Wells, Signmund Freud,

Helen Keller, Marcel Proust,

and Jack London.

Also seized were the Institute's

extensive lists of names and

addresses of LGBT people.

In the midst of the burning,

Joseph Goebbels, Propaganda

Minister, gave a political

speech to a crowd of around

40,000 people.

May 10, 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works of

Jewish authors and other considered "un-German."

 7-months after Chancellor; totalitarian state.

 Hindenburg died in 1934; president abolished.

 Public officers and soldiers required to take

an oath of loyalty to Hitler as the Führer “leader.”

Night of Long Knives (June 29, 1934)

Ernst Rohm, leader of the Nazi SA (Nazi militia) was arrested by Hitler himself on the Night of Long Knives, then murdered by two SS men for plotting a supposed coup and being gay.

As many as 400 people were killed during the purge. Hitler explained why he had not relied on the courts to deal with the conspirators: “In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I become the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason.”

The Night of the Long Knives was a turning point

in the history of Hitler's Germany. Hitler had made

it clear that he was the supreme ruler of Germany

who had the right to be judge and jury, and had

the power to decide whether people lived or died.


4. Heinrich Himmler –

Set-up & directed the SS.

a) Concentration camps –

Large prison camps.


People sent to the camps:

- Communists

- Political opponents / critics

- Jews

- Slavs

- Jehovah Witness

- Dissenting clergy

- Gypsies

- Gay men

- Forced laborers

- Criminals

- Mentally / physically challenged

Heinrich Himmler

Over 400,000 people

were medically sterilized

by the Nazis!

 His chief goal was to further the German master race.

 Leading organizer of the Holocaust; officer in charge of the concentration camps.

 Directed medical experiments on gay prisoners (homophobic).


“…The time of personal happiness is over.”

-- Adolf Hitler

 SS (Schutzstaffeln, Gestapo “Guard Squadrons”, black shirts) – originally as Hitler’s bodyguards.

 Controlled the secret police force (Gestapo) and regular police force.

 Based on 2 principles: terror and ideology.

 Terror included repression and murder – secret & regular police, concentration camps, and later had execution squads & death camps.

 Found guilty of war crimes during the Nuremburg trials.

SS Troops


Heinrich Himmler was in

charge of all the concentration

camps and organized

the Holocaust.

The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed by the government of Nazi Germany. They used a pseudoscientific basis for racial discrimination against Jews.

People with four German grandparents (white circles on the chart) were of "German blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or more Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). One or two Jewish grandparents made someone "mixed blood." The Nazis used the religious observance of a person's grandparents to determine their race.

1935 chart from Nazi

Germany used to explain

the Nuremberg Laws.


The Hitler Youth was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that

existed from 1922 to 1945. The Hitler Youth was the second oldest paramilitary

Nazi group, founded one year after the Sturmabteilung (SA) Stormtroopers.

Hitler Youth

II. Path to War

A. First Steps.

1. Violate the Treaty of Versailles.

German troops march

into the Rhineland,

Supposed to be

demilitarized by the

Treaty of Versailles.

  •  Created new air force: Luftwaffe (Mar 9, 1935).
  •  Began military draft and increased army from 100,000 to 550,000 troops.
  • Sent troops to the Rhineland (Mar 7, 1936); demilitarized per Versailles.
  • No country would use force to stop Hitler due to distraction of Depression.

Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial domination laid the foundation

for aggressive expansion outside Germany.


Wehrmacht is the name of the armed forces of

Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. During World

War II, it consisted of the army (Heer), the navy

(Kriegsmarine), the air force (Luftwaffe), and

Waffen SS (Combat arm of the SS).

German Panzer VI; Porsche Design.

A stylized version of the

Iron Cross, the emblem

of the Wehrmacht.

Day of the Wehrmacht


The Luftwaffe

German Stuka (dive bomber)

Messerschmitt Bf 109

Messerschmitt Me 264 (long range bomber)


Bf 162 (light



Jesse Owens at 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany.

Owens won 4 Gold medals (100m, 200m,

long jump, & 4x100team).

Hitler refused to acknowledge American

Jesse Owens after his win.

2. Rome-Berlin Axis (1936) – Italy and Germany partnership.

3. Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) –

Germ and Japan agree to

fight communism.

Hitler and


 Mussolini wanted to create a new Roman Empire, so invaded Ethiopia.

 After fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia in Oct 1935, England and France

condemned action and pushed Italy to become closer to Germany.

the invasion of ethiopia
The Invasion of Ethiopia


Emperor Hailie Selassie of Ethiopia


Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht), was against Jews throughout

Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. Jewish

homes and stores were ransacked in a thousand German cities,

towns and villages, as ordinary citizens and stormtroopers

destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets

covered in smashed windows — the origin of the name

"Night of Broken Glass.“ Jews were beaten to death;

30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps;

and 1,668 synagogues ransacked or set on fire.



4. Threatened to invade Austria (1938) –

a) ‘Anschluss’ – Austria is annexed by Germany.

March 12,1938: Nazis open

the crossing point and

Austria no longer exists.

Hitler in the streets

of Vienna 1938.

  • One of Hitler’s goals of reuniting his native Austria w/ Germany: Anschluss.
  • The new Austrian gov’t quickly invited German troops to enter Austria and “help”

in reinforcing law and order.

  •  The next day, after his triumphant return to Austria, he annexed Austria to Germany.
5. Munich Conference (1938) – Hitler wanted Sudetenland; urgent meeting with Br, Fr, Germ, & Ita.

a) Reps agreed to demands.

Goering, Mussolini,

Hess, Hitler, Ciano,

Himmler and Keitel

at the Munich

conference, 1938.

“Peace for our time”

boasted Neville

Chamberlain of


Appeasement to Germany to avoid conflict keep peace.

  •  Sudetenland (northwest Czechoslovakia with large population of Germans).
  •  Hitler expressed willingness to risk “world war” to achieve his objectives.
  •  German troops would occupy Sudetenland (Czechs abandoned by the West).
  • British prime minister Neville Chamberlain boasted “peace for our time.”

 Hitler broke agreement and annexed all of Czechoslovakia.

  • Hitler proclaimed in Prague (Mar 15, 1939) that he would be known as

“the greatest German of them all.”

  •  Slovakia became a puppet state controlled by Nazi Germany.

Czechs in Sudetenland

angrily greet the Nazis

in 1938.


The Wehrmacht in

Prague, Czech, 1939.


6. Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact –

(1939) – Germ and Soviet Union

agree not to attack each other.

a) Germ invades Poland (Sep 1, 1939). b) Br & Fr declare war on Germ 2

days later.

 Hitler wanted the Polish port of Danzig.

 He didn’t think West would fight for Poland.

  • Hitler wanted to avoid a 2-front war; Planned on breaking the Pact later.
  • He promised Stalin the western part of Poland and the Baltic states.
  •  Nonaggression Pact shocked world – gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland.
War in Asia (July 1937 – Sept 1939)

The Second Sino-Japanese War began in 1937, when Japan attacked deep

into China from its foothold in Manchuria (occupied Manchuria since 1931).

Nanking Massacre - The infamous war crime incident committed by the

Japanese military in and around Nanking, China, after it fell to the Imperial

Japanese Army on December 13, 1937. The period of carnage lasted for

six weeks, until early February 1938, as approx. 300,000 civilians were raped

and murdered as Nanking was looted and burned.


7. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (1940) –

Japan joins Germ & Ita.

In 1940, during World War II, the military alliance of Italy and Germany—the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis—was extended to include Japan and became the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. The three countries and their allies, known collectively as the Axis Powers, fought against the Allied Powers in the war. Here, Japanese and Italian emissaries accompany German dictator Adolf Hitler.


Poland surrenders

in 4-weeks.

III. The Course of WWII.

A. Poland invaded (Sep 1, 1939).

1. Blitzkrieg – “lightening war.”

2. Poland divided between Germ & Soviet Union on Sep 28.

► The Germans launched their attacks

on Poland with air assaults. German

Stuka bombers were instrumental in

leading the assault and forcing the

eventual surrender of Warsaw.

► England and France declare war on

Germany on Sep 3, 1939.

  •  Used armored columns, called panzer divisions, supported by airplanes.
  • Each panzer division was a strike force of 300 tanks with support forces.
  • Europe is shocked at the speed and efficiency of attack on Poland.
  •  Waited through the winter “phony war.”

Kracow, Poland

In 1940.

Soviet and German officers meeting

after the invasion of Poland.


One of the defining characteristics of what

is commonly known as "Blitzkrieg" is close

cooperation between infantry and tanks.

German troops storm into Poland just over a week after the Nonaggression Pact was

Signed, starting World War II. Soviet forces take over the Baltic states and invade Finland. Stalin's treaty serves to keep Moscow out of the greater war, while the Nazis conquer much of Western Europe.


1939, Poland

caught between

Germany and

Soviet Union.


Germany invades Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940.

The paper

clip, claimed

to be invented

in Norway,

was worn

by Norwegians

as a symbol

of unity and

resistance to

Nazi occupation.


B. Invasion of France (1940).

1. Through Luxembourg & Ardennes


a) Skipped “Maginot Line.”

  • Invasion of Netherlands, Belgium, and France started on May 10, 1940.
  •  Germans broke through weak Fr defenses and swept across northern France.
  •  Hitler went around, not through, the Maginot Line (series of concrete and steel
  • fortifications with heavy artillery along Fr/Germ border).
  •  Germans going through Ardennes split the Allied forces.

The Western

Front, 1940.

2. Battle of Dunkirk – Fr & Br forces surrounded & evacuated from beach.

Allied evacuation

at Dunkirk.

  • “Miracle at Dunkirk” due to the heroic actions of the 861 British Royal Navy and

private boats rescued 350,000 Allied troops (mostly British); 40K surrendered.

  • England asked the U.S. for help.
  • What If… the Germans didn’t halt their Panzer attack at Dunkirk??

Troops cheer with relief

when they arrive in Dover, England, after the perilous

Channel crossing, where they faced attacks by German planes, U-boats and mines.

3. France signs armistice on June 22, 1940.

The Franco-German armistice, or Vichy regime,

was the Nazi-subordinate French puppet government

Between 1940 – 1944. The Franco-German armistice

divided France into two zones: one under German military occupation and one under nominal French

control (the SE two-fifths of the country). The Vichy regime willfully collaborated with Nazi Germany, and is the only state of Europe which did so in such a voluntary extent: raids to capture Jews and other "undesirables"

were organized by the French police.

German troops

enter Paris,



Compiegne, where the French

surrendered to Hitler in 1940.

Hitler in Paris, France.


Hitler’s “Operation Sealion”

for invading England.

The Battle of Britain (July 9 to October 31, 1940) was the attempt by the

German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF),

before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain during WWII. The RAF

needed to be neutralized before Germany could launch a successful

amphibious assault on the British Isles.

the battle of britain
The Battle of Britain

A London air raid shelter.

The German


ME-109 only

had 20 min’s

over England.

A German Heinkel He 111 bomber over

London on Sep. 7, 1940.

C. Battle of Britain (July-Oct, 1940) - Germ planes bombed British targets (Blitz).
  •  Start of WWII, both sides restricted bombing cities.
  •  British had effective radar system for early warnings; navigation problems at night.
  • Germ bomber accidentally hit city of London, so British bombed Berlin for 3

nights – not much damage but a blow to German morale and security.

  • The Blitz - In retaliation, Hitler began massive bombings of London and other

British cities to crush morale (bombed every night but one for two months).

  •  Public shelters in subway tunnels; 2 mill children evacuated to the countryside.
  •  England was able to rebuild their air strength and inflicted heavy losses
  • on the Luftwaffe bombers.

1 out of 7 Londoners slept in

The subway shelters.

Customers calmly search the

shelves of a bombed-out

bookshop in London.

London on Sep. 7, 1940. 


“We shall fight on the beaches,

we shall fight on the landing

grounds, in the fields, in the

streets, and in the hills. We

shall never surrender.”

- Winston Churchill

american foreign policy 1932 1941
American Foreign Policy, 1932–1941
  • Isolationism.
  • Neutrality Acts (1930’s).
  • Lend-Lease
  • (Mar 11, 1941).
  • The Atlantic Charter
  • (Aug 14, 1941).

Churchill and FDR at sea during the Atlantic Charter talks


D. Lend-Lease Act (1941) – U.S. provided

  • Allies with war materials.

The Lend-Lease Act (1941) was the program under which the US supplied

Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with

$50.1 billion (nearly $700 billion at 2007 prices) of war materials between

1941 and 1945. It began in Mar 1941, nine months before Pearl Harbor.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt

signs H.R. 1776, the Lend-Lease

Act to give aid to Britain and China.

TheNeutrality Acts (1930’s) were a series of laws passed by the US in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that led to WWII. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following its costly involvement in WWI, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts, especially in Europe.


E. U-Boats – Patrolled in “Wolfpacks”

(groups) to attack.

Canadian ship

rams German

U-boat caught

in the open!

 HMS Bulldog disabled U-110 (dead in the water); German captain thought Bulldog was going to ram her so they left secret material onboard; British got the enigma machine and code books; Germans never knew of security breach.

 Movie: U-571.

 Operation Drumbeat – German U-Boats patrolled Am east coast (Jan-Aug, 1942), sunk 609 ships (1/4 of all ships sunk by subs in war and lost only 22 U-boats), “second happy time.”

 Germany lost 789 U-Boats and 70% of sub force during war (largest percent of forces).

 Sunk approx 3,000 Br and Am ships during war.

The Enigma



An aerial view of an

Allied convoy during

the Battle of the

Atlantic (April 1941).

Hitler and Regent Horthy of Hungary

observing U-Boat maneuvers in 1938.

Officers on the bridge of an escorting

British destroyer keep a sharp look out

for enemy submarines, October 1941.

north africa
North Africa

British and American forces invaded North Africa and forced

the German and Italian troops to surrender in May 1943.


Hitler seized Greece and

Yugoslavia (Apr 1941).

Jews in Greece are arrested & the Nazi-

controlled press tries to turn the public

against the Jews. The Germans begin

deportations in March, 1943, sending Jews

to concentration camps like Auschwitz on a

long journey packed in box-cars like sardines.

Nazis at the Acropolis in

Athens, Greece (1941).

  •  Hitler felt that the Soviet army was pitiful and could be easily defeated.
  • Hitler gained cooperation from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania, but Mussolini

was unable to defeat Greece (1940) and exposed the southern flank to

British air bases in Greece.

  • After 1941, Germany ruled some areas (Poland) thru direct annexation, but most

of occupied Europe was run by German officials with local collaborators.

germany invades russia
Germany Invades Russia

“Operation Barbarosa” (1941 - 1945)


Hitler tearing

the Nonaggression

Pact, 1941 poster.


F. Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43) – Bloodiest battle of the war.

1. Turning point of WWII.

The Battle of Stalingrad was a battle between Germany and the Soviet Union for the Soviet city of Stalingrad that took place between August 21, 1942 and February 2, 1943, as part of WWII. It was the turning point of WWII in Europe and was arguably

the bloodiest battle in human history, with combined casualties estimated above 1.7 million. The battle was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties on both sides.

Stalingrad is a major industrial

center on the Volga River.


Soviet losses were so large that at points in time the

life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day.

 Hitler wanted to exterminate the “Slavik horde.”

 Hitler gambled on taking the offensive using newly developed heavy tanks, but were soundly defeated by the Soviets.

 Stalingrad was symbolic significance for both Hitler & Stalin/Russians.

 City turned into armed encampment, civilians dug trenches & tank traps, etc.

 German troops were stopped, encircled, & supply lines cut off in the winter.

 The first Germ Field Marshall (only 1 day) to surrender in history.

 Russians have the numbers and the will to defend their homeland.

Stalin's son, Yakov Dzhugashvili captured

by the Germans. Stalin refused a trade with

the Germans, stating “I have no son.”


Soviet soldiers fighting in the

ruins of Stalingrad, 1942.

“Soldiers will fight harder for a

live city than an empty one.”

-- Josef Stalin

The Battle

of Stalingrad.

The Battle of Stalingrad (199 days) resulted in an estimated total of 1.7 to 2 million

Axis and Soviet casualties, making it by far the deadliest in human history.

 The Battle of Kursk (July 5-12, 1943) was the greatest tank battle of WWII.

 The entire German Sixth Army (considered the best Germ troops) surrendered.

By spring of 1943, Hitler knew that the Soviet Union would not be taken.

Germany never recovered from the losses in the Soviet Union.

japanese aggression
Japanese Aggression

Locations of Japanese forces in November 1941

General Hideki Tojo

 1940 – U.S. blocks resources from going to Japan; Japan signs pact w/ Germany.

pearl harbor dec 7 1941
Pearl HarborDec 7, 1941

Japan launched

a surprise attack on

the U.S. naval base at

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

At the time, the base

held nearly the entire

U.S. Pacific fleet.

18 American ships

were sunk, including

eight battleships,

decimating America’s

naval capability. Over

2,400 Americans were

killed, and another

1,000 wounded.


Photo taken from a Japanese plane during

the attack shows vulnerable U.S. battleships.

USS Arizona, 3 days later.


G. Pearl Harbor (Dec 7, 1941) – U.S. attacked by Japan.

  • 1. FDR declares war on Dec 8th.

“December 7, 1941,

a date which will

live in infamy."

-- FDR

FDR signs the

declaration of

war against Japan

on Dec 8, 1941.


The Japanese turned countless peaceful

villages into




troops march



Feb 15, 1942.

December 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway.December 8, 1941 - U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand.December 10, 1941 - Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam.December 11, 1941 - Japanese invade Burma.December 16, 1941 - Japanese invade British Borneo.December 18, 1941 - Japanese invade Hong Kong.December 22, 1941 - Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines.December 23, 1941 - General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan; Japanese take Wake Island.December 25, 1941 - British surrender at Hong Kong.December 27, 1941 - Japanese bomb Manila.