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Primary and Secondary Literature . Finding good sources for research. Types of Scientific Literature. Popular Science News Articles Interest Articles Books Meeting Abstracts, Papers, and Proceedings Research Articles Review Articles Encyclopedia or other reference material Books

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primary and secondary literature

Primary and Secondary Literature

Finding good sources for research

types of scientific literature
Types of Scientific Literature
  • Popular Science
    • News Articles
    • Interest Articles
    • Books
  • Meeting Abstracts, Papers, and Proceedings
  • Research Articles
  • Review Articles
  • Encyclopedia or other reference material
  • Books
    • Reviews
    • Textbooks
primary literature
Primary Literature
  • Report of original research
  • Written by the person(s) who conducted the research
  • Most reliable if published in a reliable peer-reviewed joural
  • Example: original journal articles
  • May be a full report or Brief/Note/ Letter
secondary literature
Secondary Literature
  • Information others have written on the topic
  • Resource that informs us of scientific research
  • Science writing in newspaper, magazines, TV news, internet, etc
  • Position papers, commentary, or review articles in peer reviewed journals
writing your background research
Writing Your Background Research
  • Should be a summary of your topic of study
  • Covers journal articles, books and other sources that describe the information that is currently known on the topic
  • Can establish the validity of your research
what am i trying to find
What am I trying to find??
  • Sources that are related to your research topic
  • They may be identical or may just contain information that is relevant for your topic.
  • For lab reports
    • Looking for background information
    • What have other scientists done on this topic?
do i need more primary or secondary sources
Do I need more primary or secondary sources?
  • Both are useful
  • Secondary sources can give you an overview of the topic
  • Primary sources are most reliable and give more specific information
  • Best to use key words
  • Search synonyms
  • Sometimes phrases work well
  • Primary literature, in general shouldn’t be more than 10 years old unless it is a standard paper on which later research is based (source of later research ideas)
  • Where do I look?
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
    • Jstore
    • TEL and Gale
      • Both available through our school library
understanding the parts of a scientific paper
Understanding the parts of a Scientific Paper
  • Abstract – Brief summary
  • Introduction – Provides background information
  • Materials/Methods – Lists protocols, techniques, and reagents used
  • Results – Clearly summarizes the data generated from the experiments
  • Discussion-Provides explanations for the results
  • References-List Of Citations
what i don t get this article
What? I don’t get this article
  • How to read an article to determine relevance
    • 1. Search for key words in the title or well known scientists in the field
    • 2. Read the Abstract!
    • 3. Read the Introduction and Discussion (Conclusion)
    • 4. Then if you think it is relevant, read other parts of the article as needed
what do i do today
What do I do today?
  • 1. Practice search: by Wednesday turn in two primary and two secondary sources on a topic of interest
    • Label each source as primary or secondary
    • How it relates to your topic of interest
    • Citation of source
    • Link to source
  • 2. Find information for background research for your next lab report
    • AP Biology: Behavior of Isopods
    • APES: Acid Rain and pH in the environment
    • You MUST have a minimum of three sources in your background information one of which must be primary.
    • Textbook sources may be used in addition to your three sources, but not as one of the three