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Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary and Secondary Sources

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Primary and Secondary Sources

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  1. Primary and Secondary Sources Shakespeare

  2. Primary Source: An original, firsthand account. Primary sources may include: AutobiographyEyewitness testimony LetterSpeech Literary workHistorical document Information from firsthand interviews or surveys

  3. Secondary Source: A secondhand account written by a writer who did not participate directly in the events he or she interpret, relates, or analyzes. Encyclopedias Magazine articles Textbooks biographies Technical journals

  4. Primary Source:Facsimile of the registry of the baptism of William Shakespeare, from The Works of William Shakespeare, by E. K. Chambers, vol. I, 1901, p. 1.The entry is in Latin and reads "Gulielmusfilius Johannes Shakspere" or, in English, "William son of John Shakspere".

  5. Primary Source: The mid-1590s were hard times for the residents of Stratford, as they were for most English towns in the midlands. To add to the miseries of malnutrition brought on by poor harvests, heavy rains, and unseasonable cold, Stratford had suffered two disastrous fires. Richard Quiney had been elected bailiff in 1592, and represented Stratford in London every year from 1597 to 1601. In 1598 he had traveled there to petition the Privy Council for relief from the Parliamentary subsidy. He stayed at the Bell, near St. Paul's, from where he wrote the following letter to Shakespeare, asking for a loan of 30£ to cover his own expenses, not those of the town.Facsimile of the letter:

  6. Primary Source : Richard Quiney Letter • Transcription of the letter: • Loveingecontreyman, I am bolde of yow, as of a ffrende, craveingeyowrhelpe with xxxlluppon Mr. Bushells mid my securytee, or Mr. Myttens with me. Mr. Rosswell is nott come to London as yeate, and I have especiallcawse. Yow shall ffrende me muche in helpeinge me out of all the debettes I owe in London, I thanck God, and muche quiet my mynde, which woldenott be indebted. I am nowetowardes the Cowrte, in hope of answer for the dispatche of my buysenes. Yow shall nether loose creddytt nor monney by me, the Lordewyllinge ; and nowe butt perswadeyowrselfesoe, as I hope, and yow shall nott need to feare, butt, with all hartiethanckefullnes I wyllholde my tyme, and content yowrffreende, and yf we bargaine farther, yow shalbe the paie-master yowrselfe. My tymebiddes me hasten to an ende, and soe I committthys [to] yowr care and hope of yowrhelpe. I feare I shall nott be backethys night ffrom the Cowrte. Haste. The Lorde be with yow and with us all, Amen ! ffrom the Bell in Carter Lane, the 25. October, 1598. Yowrs in all kyndenes, • To my loveinge good ffrend and contreyman • Mr. Wm. Shackespere deliver thees. • Reproduced from J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, The Life of William Shakespeare, p. 178. Facsimile reproductions of the letter can be found in D. H. Lambert, CartaeShakespeareanae, following p. 28, and at Your Icons. In both places, it is reproduced courtesy of the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, where it is currently held. The facsimile given above is reproduced from J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare, 1907, p. 166.

  7. Primary Source from 1593 Henry Peacham's book, The Garden of Eloquence, published in 1593, offers students, writers and orators a guidebook to rhetorical devices. Commonly known techniques such as metaphor and anaphora are included as well as more obscure terms. Peacham offers guidance and advice on how to use the devices for the greatest effect. The passage included here is Peacham's definition of irony. Peacham passes a value judgment about the morality of using a device that can mislead an audience.—AR

  8. Peacham, Henry, 1546-1634. • The garden of eloquence conteining the most excellent ornaments, exornations, lightes, flowers, and formes of speech, commonly called the figures of rhetorike. By which the singular partes of mans mind, are most aptly expressed, and the sundrie affections of his heart most effectuallievttered. Manifested, and furnished vvithvarietie of fit examples, gathered out of the most eloquent orators, and best approued authors, and chieflie out of the holie Scriptures. Profitable and necessarie, as wel for priuate speech, as for publicke orations. Corrected and augmented by the first author. H.P., London : Printed by R[ichard] F[ield] for H. Iacksondvvelling in Fleetstrete, 1593.


  10. Primary Source: A Treatise of Specters • In his treatise, Pierre le Loyer sought to classify different specters and supernatural experiences, while providing a severe rebuke to non-believers. In the first chapter, he defines a specter as "an imagination of a substance without a body that which presenteth itself sensibly unto men, against the order and course of nature, and makes them afraid." The excerpt from Chapter XI, below, identifies children, old people, and women as those most "subject to receive false imaginations and phantoms." Here, le Loyer explains how women are particularly susceptible to experiencing the supernatural, and the need for their husbands to diligently guide them in navigating these matters.—CP

  11. Primary Source: A Treatise of Specters • Loyer, Pierre le, 1550-1634.A treatise of specters or straunge sights, visions and apparitions appearing sensibly vnto men Wherein is delivered, the nature of spirites, angels, and divels: their power and properties: as also of witches, sorcerers, enchanters, and such like. With a table of the contents of the several chapters annexed in the end of the booke. Newly done out of French into English., At London : Printed by Val. S[immes] for Mathew Lownes, 1605.

  12. Secondary Source from Chicago News Sam Wanamaker quoted • A New Globe • A Replica Of Shakespeare's Theater Rises In London • September 19, 1993|By Robert W. Bone. Special to the Tribune. • LONDON — Sixty years ago, the British government sent workers to Chicago to build a reproduction of the Globe theater, the cylindrical wooden playhouse used by William Shakespeare to launch his most famous productions. It became a popular exhibit at the Century of Progress Exposition. • The project was followed by several similar temporary Globe theaters built in the optimistic rush of fairs staged in other American cities during the Depression, including those in San Diego and Cleveland. At the Cleveland version, a young Chicago-born drama student named Sam Wanamaker gave one of his first performances. • Wanamaker went on to success on stage, in film, and on TV as actor, director and producer. The Globe theaters, however, did not survive the 1930s in America. And there has not been one in England since the Puritans tore it down in 1644. The first permanent representation of this particular Elizabethan playhouse completed since then is a somewhat glitzy version unveiled in Tokyo in 1988. It is now known as the Panasonic Globe. • But today, under construction on the south bank of the ThamesRiver, almost on the site of the original, is a new, authentic replica of the famous Globe. Its principal backer is an American actor and lover of Shakespeare-Sam Wanamaker. • Wanamaker's project is more than a simple wooden building with an open top. Under the theater's floor and in a group of associated period structures will be a large museum, workshops, lecture hall and a smaller theater devoted to specialty productions. • Wanamaker said that recent archeological discoveries have helped the project along. • "First, in 1989, there was the uncovering of the foundation of the Globe's Tudor (era) neighbor, the Rose Theater. And later that year, 60 yards to the east, the remains of the Globe itself were unearthed," Wanamaker said. Details learned in the dig are being incorporated into the new design. The building was not really built in a circle, for example, but was composed of 24 sides. • "

  13. A New GlobeA Replica Of Shakespeare's Theater Rises In LondonSeptember 19, 1993|By Robert W. Bone. Special to the Tribune.cont. • The Globe and its educational center will provide the only facility in the world for the complete study of Shakespeare, and of his fellow actors, playwrights, patrons, his audience and the other theaters of his time," he said. "This dream sought after for more than two centuries is on its way." • Shakespeare's Globe, sometimes referred to as the Wooden O, was where several of his most famous plays were first performed, including "Hamlet," "Macbeth," "King Lear" and "Othello." Because public entertainment was not allowed in the city of London, on the north side of the Thames, the Globe and and other theaters were built on the south side. • Wanamaker, who is 74, hoped to have the complex finished by Shakespeare's 430th birthday next April 23. However, it probably will not be open before the fall of 1994. Already the site has been used from for various outdoor Shakespearean productions even while construction continues. • The theater's backers have provided places where visitors can watch the progress of the project. Those who walk across the Southwark Bridge from central London will immediately spot the site where a structure of English oak is taking shape, although much of the work is still being done below ground level. Then they can make their way to the spot and to the nearby temporary Shakespeare museum housed in an old warehouse in a street called Bear Gardens. • Except where the theater comes in conflict with modern building codes, it will be true to the original. For example, there will be no amplification or electric lighting on the stage. Actors will have to rely on daylight and their voices. • "This will be the only building in London allowed to have a thatched roof," said Mike Abbott, the official spokesman for the Shakespeare Globe Trust. Thatching has been outlawed in the British capital ever since London's Great Fire of 1666, he said. • "We have permission because we're going to put in a hidden, non-Elizabethan, sprinkler system," he said. "If there is any risk of fire, the sprinklers automatically douse the thatch." • The Shakespeare Museum