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Experiment. Survey. Primary and Secondary Data. Interview. Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data. Define secondary and primary data Describe primary data collection methods Describe sampling techniques

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objectives of this lesson primary and secondary data
Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data
  • Define secondary and primary data
  • Describe primary data collection methods
  • Describe sampling techniques
  • Identify advantages disadvantages of different data gathering techniques
  • Construct a survey
secondary data
Secondary Data
  • Data gathered by another source (e.g. research study, survey, interview)
  • Secondary data is gathered BEFORE primary data. WHY?
  • Because you want to find out what is already known about a subject before you dive into your own investigation. WHY?
  • Because some of your questions can possibly have been already answered by other investigators or authors. Why “reinvent the wheel”?
primary data
Primary Data
  • Data never gathered before
  • Advantage: find data you need to suit your purpose
  • Disadvantage: usually more costly and time consuming than collecting secondary data
  • Collected after secondary data is collected
sampling techniques
Sampling Techniques

Population - total group of respondents that the researcher wants to study. Populations are too costly and time consuming to study in entirety.

Sample - selecting and surveying respondents (research participants) from the population.

sampling techniques6
Sampling Techniques

A probability sample is one that gives every member of the population a known chance of being selected.

  • simple random sample - anyone
  • stratified sample - different groups (ages)
  • cluster sample - different areas (cities)

All are selected randomly.

sampling techniques7
Sampling Techniques

A non-probability sample is an arbitrary grouping that limits the use of some statistical tests. It is not selected randomly.

  • convenience sample - readily available
  • quota sample - maintain representation
primary research methods



Primary Research Methods
  • Focus Groups – bring together respondents with common characteristics
  • Observation - actually view respondents
  • Experiment - controlled variables and respondent groups.
  • Non-personal survey – on site, telephone, mail, fax, computer, panel
  • Personal interview - one-on-one survey with respondents
  • Company records – internal document survey research
constructing the questionnaire
Constructing the Questionnaire

Select the correct types of questions:

  • open ended – harder to score but get “richer” information
  • closed ended, dichotomous – offer two either/or responses (true/false; yes/no; for/against
  • multiple choice – select one or more than one
  • scaled response – gather range of “values” (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, neutral, somewhat agree, strongly agree
1 have you had any of the following medical preventive tests exams
1. Have you had any of the following medical preventive tests/exams?

_____ mammogram (if a women)

_____ prostate exam (if a man)

_____ lung x-ray

_____ electrocardiogram

_____ stress test


Please evaluate the following statement:

  • I understand the University’s code of conduct as it relates to plagiarism.
  • ____ absolutely agree
  • ____ somewhat agree
  • ____ neutral
  • ____ somewhat disagree
  • ____ absolutely disagree
important characteristics of good questionnaires
Important characteristics of good questionnaires
  • Plan a user-friendly format
  • Gather demographic data – age, gender, etc., when necessary.
  • Guarantee anonymity
  • Ensure ease of tabulation – Scantron forms
  • Ask well-phrased and unambiguous questions that can be answered
  • Develop for completeness – get all the data
  • Pilot test the instrument

Prepare a questionnaire (word processed on paper) that you utilized to gather the primary data for the formal report case.

  • The questionnaire will be inserted as an appendix at the end of your formal report.

Remember, you should include on the survey:

  • an introductory statement about the purpose of the survey,
  • a motivational reason why customers should take it, and
  • a reminder to participants that they are taking the survey anonymously.

You should NOT include on the survey:

  • answer percentages

Introductory Statement

The purpose of this survey is to help management identify family issues that our employees experience that are related to job performance. Please respond to the following survey items by checking the appropriate response next to each question/item. Your responses are completely anonymous and will only be used to assess overall employee characteristics.



purpose of the survey

ensure anonymity