Primary and Secondary Data

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# Primary and Secondary Data - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Experiment. Survey. Primary and Secondary Data. Interview. Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data. Define secondary and primary data Describe primary data collection methods Describe sampling techniques

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Presentation Transcript

Experiment

Survey

### Primary and Secondary Data

Interview

Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data
• Define secondary and primary data
• Describe primary data collection methods
• Describe sampling techniques
• Construct a survey
Secondary Data
• Data gathered by another source (e.g. research study, survey, interview)
• Secondary data is gathered BEFORE primary data. WHY?
• Because you want to find out what is already known about a subject before you dive into your own investigation. WHY?
• Because some of your questions can possibly have been already answered by other investigators or authors. Why “reinvent the wheel”?
Primary Data
• Data never gathered before
• Disadvantage: usually more costly and time consuming than collecting secondary data
• Collected after secondary data is collected
Sampling Techniques

Population - total group of respondents that the researcher wants to study. Populations are too costly and time consuming to study in entirety.

Sample - selecting and surveying respondents (research participants) from the population.

Sampling Techniques

A probability sample is one that gives every member of the population a known chance of being selected.

• simple random sample - anyone
• stratified sample - different groups (ages)
• cluster sample - different areas (cities)

All are selected randomly.

Sampling Techniques

A non-probability sample is an arbitrary grouping that limits the use of some statistical tests. It is not selected randomly.

• convenience sample - readily available
• quota sample - maintain representation

Primary Research Methods
• Focus Groups – bring together respondents with common characteristics
• Observation - actually view respondents
• Experiment - controlled variables and respondent groups.
• Non-personal survey – on site, telephone, mail, fax, computer, panel
• Personal interview - one-on-one survey with respondents
• Company records – internal document survey research
Constructing the Questionnaire

Select the correct types of questions:

• open ended – harder to score but get “richer” information
• closed ended, dichotomous – offer two either/or responses (true/false; yes/no; for/against
• multiple choice – select one or more than one
• scaled response – gather range of “values” (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, neutral, somewhat agree, strongly agree

_____ mammogram (if a women)

_____ prostate exam (if a man)

_____ lung x-ray

_____ electrocardiogram

_____ stress test

• I understand the University’s code of conduct as it relates to plagiarism.
• ____ absolutely agree
• ____ somewhat agree
• ____ neutral
• ____ somewhat disagree
• ____ absolutely disagree
Important characteristics of good questionnaires
• Plan a user-friendly format
• Gather demographic data – age, gender, etc., when necessary.
• Guarantee anonymity
• Ensure ease of tabulation – Scantron forms
• Develop for completeness – get all the data
• Pilot test the instrument
Assignment

Prepare a questionnaire (word processed on paper) that you utilized to gather the primary data for the formal report case.

• The questionnaire will be inserted as an appendix at the end of your formal report.

Remember, you should include on the survey:

• an introductory statement about the purpose of the survey,
• a motivational reason why customers should take it, and
• a reminder to participants that they are taking the survey anonymously.

You should NOT include on the survey: