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Primary and secondary sources

Primary and secondary sources

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Primary and secondary sources

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  1. USS SHAW exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor.” December 7, 1941 Primary and secondary sources Created December 2013

  2. Overview You will … • Identify and differentiate between primary and secondary sources • Categorize examples of primary and secondary sources • Define, in your own words, the terms “primary” and “secondary” sources

  3. Primary sources • Original documents, objects, accounts or records written or produced in the time period of the actual event. • Firsthand (or eyewitness) accounts. Videoclip of Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream” march. August 28, 1963 Bargain Day, 14th Street, New York. 20 April 1905 (film)

  4. Primary source • Enables you to get as close as possible to what actually happened during an historical event or time period. • Gives you an idea about what people saw, experienced or were thinking at the time of a particular event. Immigrants just arrived from Foreign Countries

  5. Primary Source • Personal records, diaries, journals, autobiographies, photographs Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

  6. Primary Source: Visual materials • Paintings • Drawings • Sculpture • Film/video Painting: Mona Lisa Created by Leonardo da Vinci, 1503-1517 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. chats with Vice-President Hubert Humphrey

  7. Primary Source • Songs and poems • Artifacts (tools, ornaments, objects • Statistics Statistics of the U.S. from Census of 1840 Song, Philadelphia c. 1864

  8. Primary Source • Published first hand accounts or stories • Radio broadcasts • Video clips of actual events • An interview Interview (oral history) with 442 soldier

  9. Primary Source • Speeches • Example: • Inauguration speeches George Washington’s first inaugural speech, April 30, 1709

  10. Primary Source • Political cartoons Title: The tread mill Creator: Macauley, C.R., (Charles Raymond), 1871-1934, artist Date Created/Published: [ca. 1913?] Summary: Cartoon marked New York World shows children turning a wheel labeled “Profits on child labor.” Political cartoon on child labor, dated 1913?

  11. Primary Source • Historical documents • Examples: • Declaration of Independence • Bill of Rights • U.S. Constitution • Government records • Art Bill of Rights Declaration of Independence

  12. Primary Source: Letters (ex. Civil War) • Letters

  13. Why primary sources? • Since primary sources represent only one person’s point of view, and may contain a person’s bias (prejudice) toward an event, they: • Allow you to make your own interpretation of the information/past • Allow you to analyze and compare different people’s accounts of the same event

  14. Secondary/Tertiary sources • Information in encyclopedias and textbooks that were written by someone who had to study or research the event first are secondary or tertiary sources • Second-hand information- accounts or interpretations of events created by someone without firsthand experience • Sometimes expresses an opinion or an argument about a past event Last modified 23 August 2013

  15. Secondary Source Think about it like this… • If I tell you something, I am the primary source. If you tell someone else what I told you, you are the secondary source.

  16. Secondary Source • Charts, graphs, or images created AFTER the time period Book summarizing the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center

  17. Secondary Sources Think about it… • Although they can be useful and reliable, they cannot reflect what people who lived at the time thought or felt about the event. • They can represent a more fair account of the event because they can include more than one point of view, or may include information that was unavailable at the time of the event.

  18. Primary or Secondary Source? • Newspaper and magazine articles can be a primary or secondary source… • If the article was written at the time something happened (an eyewitness or firsthand account), then it is a primary source. • However, if a news reporter in 2009 wrote about George Washington’s inauguration in 1789, that would be a secondary source. (Primary source)

  19. Primary or secondary? • A map might be a primary or secondary source…for example: • A map created in 1860’s is a primary source for that time; • A map created today, showing distribution of slaves in the Southern States is a secondary source. (Primary source) Title: map showing distribution of slaves in the Southern States Created/Published: A. von Steinwehr,186-?

  20. Now you try it! Primary source checklist: • Created at the time of an event or very soon after? • Created by someone who saw or heard the event? • One-of-a kind, or rare? Stay tuned…to be continued in class…

  21. Primary or secondary? From FUTURECASTS online magazine, 4/1/01

  22. Primary or secondary? Barack Obama’s Aug. 28, 2009 presidential acceptance speech

  23. Primary or secondary? Diary of a Wimpy Kid book series

  24. Primary or secondary? A biography by Michael Sandler

  25. Primary or secondary? Steven Spielberg’s movie on Abraham Lincoln

  26. Primary or secondary? • I was watching ESPN and one of the reporters said he had heard good reviews about a new sports movie. When he talks about the movie, what is he? • My friends and I found an old wedding dress in our attic. My father said it belonged to my grandmother. What is the dress?

  27. Primary or secondary? • I like to read People magazine. I really like the articles written by others about Hollywood actors. When I read these stories, what am I reading? • My mom has CDs of my grandparents telling stories about when they were kids. We love to listen to these at family gatherings. What are we listening to?

  28. Primary or secondary? • When I am doing homework for U.S. Government and I read the commentaries by Supreme Court Justices on landmark cases, what am I reading? • When I was at summer camp a few years ago, I found an arrowhead; I did research and found out it has been made by the Cherokee Indians. What is my arrowhead?

  29. Primary or secondary? Portrait of James Madison. Phlada. (Philadelphia): W.H. Morgan, [between 1809 and 1817] Prints & Photographs Division. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-16960 (b&w film copy neg.) Portrait of James Madison, 1800’s

  30. Primary source citations Anderson, I.P. Clara Day. Johnson Song, Publisher c. 1864. Song sheet. American Song Sheet Collection Lib. Of Cong. Web. 13 Sept. 2013. < collId=amss&fileName=as1/as102110/amsspage.db&recNum= 0&itemLink=S?ammem/amss:@OR(@field(AUTHOR+@od1(Anderson,+I++P+))+@field(OTHER+@od1(Anderson,+I++P+))+) >. Bargain Day, 14th Street, New York. Photog. Frederick S. Armitage. American Mutoscope and Biograph Company. 1905. The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898-1906. 14 Apr. 1999. American Memory. Lib. of Congress. 12 Sept. 2013 < <

  31. Primary source citations Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503-1506. Oil on wood. Louvre, Paris. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. chats with Vice-President Hubert Humphrey as they shake hands. 1965. King, Martin Luther,--Jr.,--1929-1968--Public appearances. Lib. of Congress. 12 Sept. 2013 < >. Franklin, Benjamin. The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.

  32. Primary source citations Immigrants just arrived from Foreign Countries--Immigrant Building, Ellis Island, New York Harbor. c1904. Immigrants to the United States, 1890-1928. Library of Congress. 12 Sept. 2013 <>. Macauley, Charles Raymond. “The Tread Mill.” Cartoon. 1913. Lib. of Cong. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. < >. Scott, Newton. “Civil War Letter.” 11 Aug. 1863. Letter. Letters from an Iowa Soldier in the Civil War. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. < >.

  33. Primary source citations United States Congress. The Bill of Rights. 1789. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. < >. U.S. Census Bureau Statistics of the United States: 1840. Lib. Of Cong. Web. 13 Sept. 2013 < 2070610a/rbpe2070610a.db&recNum=1&itemLink=D?rbpebib:24:./temp/~ammem_J71l::@@@mdb=mamcol,rbpebib,calbkbib,lhbcbbib,cic,ngp,klpmap,mymhiwebib,fawbib,psbib,lhbtnbib,detr,lhbumbib,upboverbib&linkText=0 >. U.S. Constitution.

  34. Primary source citations U.S. Declaration of Independence. USS SHAW exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor. 7 Dec. 1941. World War II Photos. National Archives and Records Administration. <>. Washington, George. “First inaugural speech.” 30 April 1709.