Primary and Secondary Processing Outcome 2
Processing food Food Processing is any technique or method that changes raw plant or animal material into safe, edible and more palatable food.
Why process food? • Ensures food is safe to eat • Makes food available all year round regardless of season • Extends the shelf life of many foods • Increases the convenience for consumers by reducing preparation time • Makes some foods edible, for example, making oven fried chips from potatoes • Makes some food palatable and more enjoyable to eat, for example, soy beans. • Can add extra nutritional benefits (e.g functional foods) or meet specific nutritional needs (e.g gluten free)
Primary Processing Primary processing involves a range of processes to make food safe to eat so that it can be consumed individually or used in the manufacture of other food products. The physical form changes very little. • Harvesting • Picking • Washing • Grading • Sorting • Milling • Packaging • Weighing • Distribution
Secondary Processing Secondary processing is the methods used to turn primary processed foods into other food products either on their own or mixed with other ingredients. The physical form can change quite significantly as a result of secondary processing. • Juicing • Peeling • Stewing • Dicing • Mixing • Canning • Kneading • Cooking • Drying
From paddock to plate: the supply chain. The network of primary producers, manufacturers, wholesalers, distributers and retailers who turn turn raw ingredients into food products and deliver them to consumers.
Key foods of plant origin • Cereals-the edible seeds from certain grains such as wheat, rice, barley, oats and corn. • Fruits- the matured ovaries of flowers. The part eaten is the fleshy part around the seeds and ovaries. Classifications include berries, citrus and stone. • Vegetables-herbaceous plants which are usually grown from seed. The classifications are derived from the part of the plant eaten- root, stem, leaf, flower, bulb etc. • Nuts -an edible kernel surrounded by a hard shell. • Legumes- the seeds of pod bearing plants.
Key foods of animal origin • Meat-the flesh of animals, birds and fish that humans eat. • Dairy Foods- are the milks or products produced from liquid milk from cows, goats or sheep. • Eggs-A self contained food from mostly hens, but also ducks, geese, emu’s and other birds.
Outcome 2: Key Knowledge and Skills Knowledge • the primary and secondary processing that occurs from the point of origin to the consumer for one of each type of the following foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy foods Skills • analyse the reasons for primary and secondary processing of one of each of the following key foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy foods • assess the impact of processing and preparation techniques on the properties of food.
task • Define the term primary processing. • Explain the term secondary processing. • Potatoes are versatile vegetables that undergo both primary and secondary processing. Explain the difference between primary and secondary processing using potatoes as an example. • Food processing provides many advantages to both consumers and producers. • Outline four advantages to consumers of food processing • outline two advantages to food manufacturers involved in the secondary processing of food. • Many fruits undergo primary and secondary processing before they are used to manufacture ingredients and food products. Outline two reasons for the primary processing of fruits such as apples and pears. • Secondary processing turns primary processed ingredients into other food products that can be used by consumers. List two benefits to the consumer or manufacturer of the secondary processing of frozen peas. • Identify the primary processing sages that are likely to take place for wheat, vegetables, fruit and milk.