Primary and Secondary Resources Characteristics and Examples
Primary Get as close to the original event as possible Books from the period, memoirs, letters, diaries Opinion polls, audiotapes Primary Sources on the Web Secondary Interprets or analyzes a historical event or phenomena Primary and Secondary Sources - Nonsciencehttp://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/PrimarySources.html Accessed 10/16/05
Definition – Reports of research, original theoretical writings, letters Examples – Journal articles – reports of an experiment by the scientist(s) Dissertations (Ph.D. research) Reports of government agencies Characteristics Formal writing Author generally has academic credentials Extensive bibliography (which you might look up and use) Used to back up the main points in your work Primary Science Resources http://academic.bowdoin.edu/courses/f04/es215/dissemination/FindingCitingPrimaryLit2004.pdf
Highwire Press American Chemical Society Publications Directory of Open Access Journal A Physics and Astronomy Example http://highwire.stanford.edu/lists/freeart.dtl http://pubs.acs.org/ http://www.doaj.org/ http://contactincontext.org/cic/v1i1/qhistograms.pdf Science Journals On-line
Definition Writing about science but not by the scientist who did the experiment Example Most web sites Popular magazines Interviews Encyclopedia articles Textbooks Characteristics Describes scientific concepts (acids, force, cells) Used to provide background and clarify ideas Explains the work of scientists or interviews scientists Secondary Sources for Science http://academic.bowdoin.edu/courses/f04/es215/dissemination/FindingCitingPrimaryLit2004.pdf
Science News National Geographic Scientific American American Scientist ChemMatters Time, Newsweek, US News and World Report Times-Union, New York Times Secondary Often Primary Often Primary Often Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary Recommended Periodicals for Science
Recommended University sites – address ends in edu Government sites – address ends in gov On-line journals On-line periodicals Example “insulation” Secondary source Primary Source Not recommended Commercial sites Advertisements Sites that just have the links and search results – these are not references Non-tech/sci encyclopedia Example “insulation” Just an ad On-line encyclopedia Web-based Resources:
Taking Notes in the Library • Write a complete bibliography at the top of each set of notes you take • Take all notes in Main Idea/Detail format in two columns. • These must be in your Science Project Composition Book. • Write a “Learning Log” entry at the end of each period (class) in the library.
Main Idea Problem Unsupported hypotheses Three basic features signaling Hypothesis Supporting Detail Why do lion’s have manes? Defence, signal quality Practice with Sources – Write in your regular composition bookPrimary Source:West, Peyton M. (2005). The Lion’s Mane. American Scientist,93(3),226-235.
Main Idea Three theories Three astronomical tests for relativity Supporting Detail Practice with Sources and Notes– Write in your regular composition bookSecondary Source:Fernie, J. Donald. (2005). The Lion’s Mane. American Scientist,93(5),404-407.
Learning Log entry – sentence completion style Primary science sources are characterized by __________________. An example is ____________________. Secondary science source are different from primary sources because _______ _______________________________. The notes on _____________________ were an example of a ________ source because ___________________________________.