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Introduction to the Microscope. History Types. Exploring Life. How did microscopes change our ideas about living things? What are the types of microscopes, and how do they compare?. Exploring Life. light microscope compound microscope electron microscope.

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Exploring Life

  • How did microscopes change our ideas about living things?

  • What are the types of microscopes, and how do they compare?


Exploring Life

  • light microscope

  • compound microscope

  • electron microscope


The invention of microscopes enabled people to see details of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Circa 1000AD – The first vision aid was invented (inventor unknown) called a reading

stone. It was a glass sphere that magnified when laid on top of reading materials.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Circa 1284 –

Italian, Salvino D'Armate is credited with inventing the first wearable eye glasses.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1590 – Two Dutch eye glass makers, Zaccharias Janssen and son Hans Janssen experimented with multiple lenses placed in a tube. The Janssens observed that viewed objects in front of the tube appeared greatly enlarged, creating both the forerunner of the compound microscope and the telescope.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1665 – English physicist, Robert Hooke looked at a sliver of cork through a microscope lens and noticed some "pores" or "cells" in it. He named cells.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1674– Anton van Leeuwenhoek built a simple microscope with only one lens to examine blood, yeast, insects and many other tiny objects. Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe bacteria, and he invented new methods for grinding and polishing microscope lenses that allowed for curvatures providing magnifications of up to 270 times, the best available lenses at that time.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

18th century – Technical innovations improved microscopes, leading to microscopy becoming popular among scientists. Lenses combining two types of glass reduced the "chromatic effect" the disturbing halos resulting from differences in refraction of light.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1830 – Joseph Jackson Lister reduces spherical aberration or the "chromatic effect" by showing that several weak lenses used together at certain distances gave good magnification without blurring the image. This was the prototype for the compound microscope.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1872 – Ernst Abbe, then research director of the Zeiss Optical Works, wrote a mathematical formula called the "Abbe Sine Condition". His formula provided calculations that allowed for the maximum resolution in microscopes possible.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1903 – Richard Zsigmondy developed the ultramicroscope that could study objects below the wavelength of light. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1925.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1932 – Frits Zernike invented the phase-contrast microscope that allowed for the study of colorless and transparent biological materials for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1931 – Ernst Ruska co-invented the electron microscope for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. An electron microscope depends on electrons rather than light to view an object, electrons are speeded up in a vacuum until their wavelength is extremely short, only one hundred-thousandth that of white light. Electron microscopes make


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1931 – Ernst Ruska

it possible to view objects as small as the diameter of an atom.


Microscope History of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

1981 – Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invented the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the atomic level. Binnig and Rohrer won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. The powerful scanning tunneling microscope is the strongest microscope to date.


Types of Microscopes of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

  • Compound Microscope

  • Dissection Microscope

  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)


Types of Microscopes of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

A compound microscope is a light microscope that uses more than one lens to enlarge images up to 1,500 times their original size.


Compound Microscope of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Compound microscopes are light illuminated. The image seen with this type of microscope is two dimensional. This microscope is the most commonly used. You can view individual cells, even living ones. It has high magnification. However, it has a low resolution.


Compound Microscope Images of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Paulownia Wood c.s.200x

Frog’s blood

1,000x


Dissection Microscope of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

A dissection microscope is light illuminated. The image that appears is three dimensional. It is used for dissection

to get a better look at the larger specimen. You cannot see individual cells because it has a low magnification.

(also called stereo microscope)


Dissection Microscope Images of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Head of a moth pupa

60x

Sunflower with moth pupa in the stem

10x


An of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.electron microscope can magnify an image up to 100,000 times or more

  • Transmission electron microscope (TEM)

  • Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  • Reflection electron microscope (REM)

  • Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)

  • Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM)


Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

SEM use electron illumination. The image is seen in 3-D. It has high magnification and high resolution. The

specimen is coated in gold and the electrons bounce off to give you and exterior view of the specimen. The pictures are in black and white.


Scanning Electron Microscope Images of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

pigeon blood

cockroach antenna


Transmission Electron Microscope - TEM of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

TEM is electron illuminated. This gives a 2-D view. Thin slices of specimen are obtained. The electron beams pass.

through this. It has high magnification and high resolution


Transmission Electron Microscope Images of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

bacillus bacteria

dividing

mitochondrion


Using Microscopes of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Microscopes can assist doctors by enabling them to view a surgical area in greater detail.

microscope

from Latin microscopium, means “an instrument for viewing what is small”


Using Microscopes of living things that could not be seen with the unaided eye.(cont.)

  • There are many uses for microscopes in fields in addition to health care:

    • Forensic scientists use microscopes to study evidence from crime scenes.

    • People who study fossils use microscopes to examine fossils and other materials from where fossils are found.


All living things have certain characteristics in common and can be classified using several methods. The invention of the microscope has enabled us to explore life further, which has led to changes in classification.


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