Nigeria Public Policy Henock Yilma
Economic and Political Reform • Corruption • Plagues the public and private sectors • Hinders the development of a country with plenty of natural resources • Result: Revenues have been lost • 1960-1999: Estimated $400 billion stolen
Corruption of Sani Abacha • For every year he was president, Sani Abacha estimated to have stolen equivalent of 2-3% of Nigeria’s GDP every year he was president • Looted $3-5 billion of public money during his five years • 458 million hidden in international bank accounts
Corruption Index ”corruption must no longer be tolerated in any corner of the nation; not in political life and not in business or civic affairs.” -BabatundeFashola
Goodluck Johnathan: Corruption? • Since 2010, economy has averaged %7 annual growth. • The country has a debt-to-GDP ratio of roughly 18% and a budget deficit of under 3% • Corruption • US State Department: "massive, widespread, and pervasive corruption affecting all levels of government“ • Issues with the oil industry…
Foreign Policy • Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa • The United States is the largest foreign investor in Nigeria • The United States and Nigeria have signed a bilateral trade and investment framework agreement. • China is investing big in Nigeria • $10 Billion Investment in Nigerian Hydrocarbons • Member of the African Union
Oil • Discovery: 1956 at Oloibiri in the Niger Delta after half a century of exploration • 1958: First shipment of oil from Nigeria • 1971: Nigeria joined the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • 1977: Established the Nigerian National Petroleum Company (NNPC)
Nigerian National Petroleum Company • “NNPC is an integrated Oil and Gas Company, engaged in adding value to the nation’s hydrocarbon resources for the benefit of all Nigerians and other stakeholders.”
Oil: Blessing and Curse • 95 percent of the country's export earnings • 80 percent of the country’s revenue • Africa’s biggest oil exporter • Transparency Issues • Environmental Issues
LamidoSanusi Speaks Out • Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria • Claimed $20bn of the country's oil revenue went missing in the year 2012-13 • Nigeria is being "raped by vested interests.“ • Goodluck Jonathan suspended him from his position
Oil Pollution in Ogoniland Region • Oil extraction in the Niger Delta has led to widespread contamination of the environment • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assessed the environmental and public health impacts of oil pollution
Recommended Transitional Steps from the Report • There will not be one single clean-up technique appropriate for the entire area. • A combination of approaches will need to be considered
Poverty • Poverty • Almost 70% of the population is at or below the poverty line • 112 million believed to live below the poverty line • Accessto health care and education • Developing an increased middle class (Slowly)
Welfare State (Pre-2004) Public Sector • Pension Ordinance of 1951 • Provided public sector employees with pensions and gratuities • Pay-As You-Go (PAYG) system for public sector • Benefits were met on a PAYG basis – with significant pension and gratuity
Private Sector • The first private sector pension scheme in Nigeria was set up for the employees of the Nigerian Breweries in 1954 • This was followed by United African Company (UAC) in 1957 • National Provident Fund (NPF) (1961) • First formal pension scheme in Nigeria for non-pensionable private sector employees. • Only provided lump-sum benefits
Nigeria Social Insurance Trust Fund (NSITF) • Enhanced pension scheme for private-sector employees • Registered members of the NPIF automatically became members of the NSITF
Welfare State Issues • Issues with the old Welfare System • Main Flaw: “Defined benefits” were made without putting aside money for future liabilities
Post-2004 Era • National Pension Commission (PenCom) • Supervises pensions matters in the country • Pension Reform Act 2004 • Receives retirement benefits as and when due • Ensuringthat individuals save in order to cater for their livelihood during old age • Establisha uniform set of rules, regulations and standards for the administration and payments of retirement benefits
Migration • Southwest (18 million) attracts migrants from all over Nigeria • Location of the nation’s two largest seaports • 65% of its industrial plains • Educational and Research Institutions • Agricultural Plantations • Rural to Urban • Urban Population: 49.6% of total population (2011) • Rate of urbanization:3.75% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Biafran Conflict (1967-1970) • Nigeria had a federal constitution consisting of three regions • Hausa and Fulani (North) • Yoruba (Southwest) • Ibo (Southeast) • In the mid-1960s, ethnic tensions broke out. • Up to 30,000 Ibos were killed in fighting with Hausas • Around 1 million refugees fled to their Ibo homeland in the east. • On May30, 1967, the head of the Eastern Region, Colonel EmekaOjukwu, unilaterally declared the independent Republic of Biafra.
Boko Haram (Origins?) • Jama'at ahl al-sunna li-da'wa wa-l-qital • Said to have been founded in 2001 • 2002-2009: • Boko Haram established its base • Spread its contempt for Western education and government corruption
Mohammed Yusuf Death Leader Mohammed Yusuf, was killed in police custody in 2009 following a police raid. • Resulted in reprisal attacks on police that spread to four states. • Since 2010 violence has intensified • May 15, 2013 President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in three of the states affected by Boko Haram.
Current Situation with Boko Haram • 2014 appears to be the deadliest year yet • Responsible for killing at least 1,300 people in the last two months • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s6flerfasbk • (Boko Haram video) • Human Rights Abuses • “The killing and mutilation of ordinary Nigerians, the abduction and rape of women and girls, and the use of children for fighting are horrifying human rights violations.” –Daniel Bekele (Africa Director Human Rights Watch)
Health • HIV & AIDS • Estimated 3.5 million infected with HIV • National Agency for the Control of AIDS • Nigeria has the world's second-largest number of people living with the virus after South Africa. • Nigeria also carries about one-third of the global burden of new HIV infections among children (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS.)
Efforts to Combat HIV • The federal government has allocated more than $12.4m to the state to financeHIV and AIDS reduction initiatives from 2014-15 • The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): given $2.5billion to Nigeria to fight the virus
Gender Issues • 80.2 million (49%) of Nigeria’s 162.5 million people are women • Federal Ministry of Women Affairs (FMWA) • National Centre for Women Development (NCWD)
Adekoya, Remi. "This Banker Turned Whistleblower Has a Revolutionary Message for Nigeria." www.theguardian.com. The Guardian, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Amnesty International. "NIGERIA: BAD INFORMATION: OIL SPILL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE NIGER DELTA." www.amnesty.org. Amnesty, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Asobie, Assisi. "Transparency in the Management of Nigeria’s Oil Revenue." www.premiumtimesng.com. Premium Times NG, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • CBN. "About CBN." www.cenbank.org. Central Bank of Nigeria, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Duthiers, Vladimir. "Lagos of the Future: Megacity's Ambitious Plans." Lagos of the future: Megacity's Ambitious Plans. CNN, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Ekott, Ini. "LamidoSanusi Opens Up: How NNPC is Robbing Nigeria Blind." www.premiumtimesng.com. Premium Times NG, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Hansen, Thomas. "Nigeria: Growing Away From Oil?" www.forbes.com. Forbes, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • NCWD. "About NCWD." www.ncwd.gov.ng. NCWD, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Nicoll, Fergus. "Nigeria's Ethnic Divisions." news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • NNPC. "About NNPC." www.nnpcgroup.com. Nigeria National Petroleum Coorporation, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Ogunlesi, Tolu. "Urbanisation: Lagos, Nigeria, Keeping Up with the Changes." www.theafricareport.com. The Africa Report, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Ross, Will. "Is Nigeria Serious about Tackling Corruption?" www.bbc.com. BBC, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • UNEP. Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland. Nairobi: UNEP, n.d. Print. • - - -. "The UNEP Chief Scientist Office and the Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland, Nigeria." www.unep.org. UNEP, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • UNODC. "Nigeria's Corruption Busters." www.unodc.org. UNODC, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. • Whaley, Jane. "Oil in Nigeria – Curse or Blessing?" www.geoexpro.com. ExPro, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
Discussion • Boko Haram • How to stop them? • Boko Haram vs Al Shabaab? • Should there be a similar approach done for Boko Haram? • Is there any possible way North and South could separate?