Chinese Culture As you view the slide show, fill in facts on the worksheet.
Social Organization – Traditional • Social Classes: • Gentry – wealthy landowners • Peasants • Artisans / Merchants • Soldiers • Social Mobility was possible (use any wealth to educate sons for civil service exams) • Joint Family = Extended Family
Social Organization – Traditional • Women = inferior • Girls were only good for work and bearing children (preferably sons) • “An ignorant woman is virtuous”
Social Organization - Communist • The government was more important than the individual. • The government was more important than the family. • Breakdown of filial piety • One Child Law • Women are considered equals
Customs / Traditions - Traditional • Filial Piety – duty and respect that children owe their parents • Respect for ancestors – offerings for their ancestors (food / clothing) • Arranged Marriages • Foot binding for women – small feet were considered beautiful
Customs / Traditions - Communist • Cultural Revolution • Red Guard – student groups in support of Mao • Attacked anyone who said negative things about communism or Chairman Mao • End of arranged marriages • Ancestor offerings = illegal
Religion - Traditional • Ancient Chinese believed in a ‘Higher Being’ • Mandate of Heaven • More concerned with Schools of Thought • Confucianism • Legalism • Daoism • Buddhism came to China from South Asia 100 A.D.
Religion - Communist • No religions or schools of thought were permitted • Communist people should not worship anything but Chairman Mao and the CCP • Secret religious traditions survive in rural areas
Government - Traditional • Hereditary Ruling Families • Dynastic Cycle – rise and fall of ruling families • Mandate of Heaven • Short-lived Republic – 1911-1949
Government - Communist • Communist Chinese Party (CCP) • Took control in 1949 • Mao Zedong = Chairman Mao • Despite “constitution” • Very strict rule • No personal freedoms or rights • Totalitarian State
Language - Traditional • Many different dialects and forms of Chinese • Very complicated and difficult to become literate
Language - Communist • Mandarin = China’s official language • Simplified the Chinese written language • Literacy was a major goal • Educated workers = productive workers
Economic System - Traditional • Subsistence Farming • Silk Road – trade route linking East Asia and the Mediterranean • International Interference (late 1700s) • Spheres of Influence • Open Door Policy
Economic System - Communist • Complete state ownership • Collective Farms – government forced peasants to pool their land, tools, and labor to farm • Great Leap Forward (Communes) • Later communist leaders expanded international trade
Arts / Literature - Traditional • Bronze Sculptures • Porcelain • Daoism influenced art and poetry
Arts / Literature - Communist • Propaganda – spread of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause • Lei Feng – teaches children how to be good communists • Quotations from Chairman Mao (Little Red Book)