Chinese Tea Culture • Introduction • China, the Hometown of Tea • The Importance of Tea in People’s Daily Life • Classification of Tea • Tea and Health • Tea Custom • Tea Ceremonies Gongfu Tea • Tea and Chinese Culture • Tea Service Master • Tea utensils
Introduction • Tea (茶) commonly denotes the drink made from steeping(浸泡） the processed leaves, buds（芽）, or twigs（枝） of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis 茶树) in water. • Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called flushes(嫩芽) . A plant will grow a new flush every seven to fifteen days during the growing season, and leaves that are slow in development always produce better flavored teas.
Of the three major beverages of the world-- tea, coffee and cocoa-- tea is consumed by the largest number of people in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavor （涩味）which many enjoy.
Introduction • Chinese tea culture refers to the methods of preparation of tea,the equipment used to make tea and the occasions in which tea is consumed in China. The terms chayi "Art of Tea 茶艺" and "Tea Ceremony" have been used, but the term "Tea Culture茶文化" includes more than just the ceremony. Also "culture" is easier to translate into English from the Chinese term "art 艺".
Tea culture in China differs from that of Europe, Britain or Japan in such things as preparation methods, tasting methods and the occasions for which it is consumed. Even now, in both casual and formal Chinese occasions, tea is consumed regularly. In addition to being a drink, Chinese tea is used in Traditional Chinese medicine and in Chinese cuisine.
China, the Hometown of Tea • It is universally acknowledged that China is the original tea-growing area, as well as the first country to grow, produce and drink tea. The Discovery of Tea The History of tea in China
The Discovery of Tea • According to legend, in 2737 BC, Emperor SHEN NUNG a notably skilled ruler, scientist, scholar and patron守护神 of the arts, ruled China’s vast empire. His many farsighted edicts法令 included the requirement that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. Shen Nung Tasted Plants
The Discovery of Tea • One summer day, while on a state visit to a distant part of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. Accordingly, servants began boiling water for the royal court to drink. By chance, the wind blew dried leaves from a near by bush, into the boiling water and a brown substance was infused into the liquid. As a gifted herbalist and scientist the Emperor was interested in the newly blended concoction混合物. He examined its properties and after sipping and tasting he declared it to be…”MOST REFRESHING!”
The History of tea in China • It has been used as medicine since the primitive society. • It has been found in the record documents of China’ Zhou Dynasty about 1100BC. • According to historical data, China began to grow tea about two thousand years ago during the period of the Warring States (475-221BC). • Drinking tea became a fashion in the Western Jin Dynasty and Tang dynasty. • In the Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1271-1368) Dynasties tea appraising became a popular custom • Since 1700s, the Chinese tea has largely expended into the world market.
The History of tea in China • At present more than forty countries in the world grow tea, with Asian countries producing 90% of the world's total output. All tea trees in other countries have their origin directly or indirectly in China.
Map of Chinese Tea Producing Area 21 Provinces 4 regions
Lu Yu, the Sage of Tea 陆羽煮茶图 陆羽（733年－804年），字鸿渐；唐朝复州竟陵（今湖北天门市）人。一名疾，字季疵，号竟陵子、桑苎翁、东冈子，又号茶山御史。以著世界第一部茶叶专著——《茶经》闻名于世，对中国茶业和世界茶业做出了卓越贡献，被誉为“茶圣”，奉为“茶仙”，祀为“茶神”。 《新唐书·陆羽传》记：“羽嗜茶，著经三篇，言茶之原、之法、之具尤备，天下益知饮茶矣。”
Lu Yu: Sage of Tea “Tea Jing” 茶经（Tea Classics) written by Lu Yu 陆羽in 760AD was the first book of tea in the world.
Tea appraising in Ancient China • In the Song and Yuan Dynasties a popular custom was. Over the long history of drinking tea, a special and simple Chinese tea culture came into being. Drinking tea was not only for quenching thirst or for enjoyment, but also for the promotion of friendship and mutual understanding. Folk customs of drinking tea reflected the ancient Chinese people's great interest in tea culture. 品茶图 斗茶 Tea Fight
A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 meters (52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.
Wild Tea Trees in Yunnan Province • Height: 32.12 m
Tea in Daily Life • “Firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce, vinegar and tea are the seven necessities to begin a day.” • Cu Cha Dan Fann 粗茶淡饭: coarse tea and tasteless dinner
The Importance of Tea Tea in China’s Economy • Tea has always been a vital part of China’s economy. Back in the “Good Old Days” 往昔美好时光of the Great Wall it was actually used as money! Black Tea was formed into bricks and carried by traders as the caravans 穿越沙漠的）旅行队ventured west. At that time, a brick of Black Tea was as precious as gold and as important an international currency as the US Dollar is today.
Tea in Literature • 商人重利轻别离，前月浮梁买茶去。 • The merchant cared for money more than for me, • one month ago he went away to purchase tea. • 酒壮英雄胆，茶引文人思。 • Wine can add virginity to heroes • while tea can stir up men of letters.
Tea in Art 秉烛品茶
Tea Classification • The main varieties of Chinese tea: • Green Tea • Black Tea • Oolong Tea • White Tea • Yellow Tea • Scented Tea
制茶工艺 (1)绿茶：鲜叶－杀青－揉捻（做形）－干燥 ⑵黄茶：鲜叶－杀青－揉捻－闷黄－干燥 ⑶黑茶：鲜叶－杀青－揉捻－渥堆－干燥 ⑷白茶：萎凋－干燥 （新工艺白茶：萎凋－轻揉－干燥） ⑸青茶(乌龙茶):萎凋-做青-炒青-揉捻（做形）－干燥 ⑹红茶：萎凋－揉捻－发酵－干燥
Tea Classification • Other teas: • date tea • ginseng tea • fruit tea • eight-treasure tea • lotus seed-heart tea • Tangerine（柑橘） peel tea • Chrysanthemum （菊花）Tea
Green tea 绿茶 • Characteristics • The tea made without being fermented. • The tea liquid and tea leaves are greenish. • Benefits: • It help people reduce their inner heat. • It helps with anti-ageing. • It prevents computer radiation and bad breath.
Green tea 绿茶 • The most well-known green teas: • Longjing Tea from West Lake of Hangzhou 西湖龙井 • Maofeng Tea from Huangshan Mountain 黄山毛峰 • Yunwu Tea from Lushan Mountain 庐山云雾 • Biluochun Tea from Jiangsu 洞庭碧螺春
Longjing Tea 龙井 • a top-grade green tea from Longjing, West Lake, Hangzhou • Four characteristics： • green in color 色绿 • fragrant in smell 香郁 • sweet in taste 味醇 • beautiful in appearance形美
Biluochun Tea 碧螺春 • a top-grade green tea from Dongting 洞庭, Taihu, 太湖，Wu County吴县, Jiangsu Province • Biluo Peak on Mountain Dongting • “Terrifying aroma” 吓煞人香 • Emperor Kangxi 康熙 named it biluochun.
Black tea 红茶 • Characteristics: • The fermented tea. • The most popular tea in the world. • The tea liquid and tealeaves are reddish. • Benefits: • It facilitates the fostering of yangqi in the human body. • It warms the stomach. • It helps with digestion. • It is a most suitable choice in cold seasons.
Black tea 红茶 • The most well-known black teas: • Qimen Black Tea 祁门红茶 • Yunan Dianhong Tea 云南滇红 • Sichuan Chuanhong Tea 四川川红
Qimen black tea • a top-grade black tea from Qimen 祁门 and Guichi 贵溪 of Anhui Province. • In 1915, Qimen black tea was awarded the Gold Medal at Panama International Fair. • From then on, it has been popular with people in foreign countries, especially the upper-class people in Britain.
Oolong tea 乌龙茶 Characteristics: • blue tea 青茶 • The half-fermented tea • an important part of Gongfu tea • The tea leaves are green in the center and red at the edge. Benefits: • It decomposes fat and helps people lose weight.
Oolong tea 乌龙茶 • The most well-known blue teas: • Tieguanyin (Iron Goddess Guanyin) 铁观音 • Wuyiyan Tea 武夷岩茶 • Taiwan Oolong Tea 台湾乌龙
Tieguanyin 铁观音 • Tieguanyin Tea, translated into English as Iron Goddess Tea, is one of the most famous types of Chinese Tea. It has many different translations and is often called Tieguanyin, Ti Kuan Yin, Tikuanyin, Iron Buddha, Iron Goddess Tea, and Iron Goddess of Mercy Tea. • Tieguanyin is produced originally in Anxi County(安溪) in Fujian Province • Tealeaves: dark green in color, similar to that of iron • It is said that Tieguanyin has such a strong aroma that even after adding water to the teapot seven times, one can still enjoy the pleasant taste and fragrance. • Several legends of Tieguanyin.
A Legend of Tieguanyin 2-1 • During the reign of Emperor Qianlong there in Fujian Province's Anxi County there was a dilapidated temple that was dedicated to the Buddhist Bodhisattva Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy. A poor farmer named Wei Yin(魏饮) , on his way to his fields’ everyday, would pass the temple and noticed its deteriorating state. He felt something needed to be done. The farmer was quite poor and didn't have the means to restore the temple, so instead he brought a broom and incense to the temple. He thoroughly cleaned the temple and burned the incense in offering to Guanyin. He did this twice a month for many months.
A Legend of Tieguanyin 2-2 One night in a dream, the Bodhisattva Guanyin appeared to him and told him of a cave located behind the temple. Guanyin told him that a treasure was waiting in the cave for him. He was told to take this treasure and share it with others. When he woke up, Old Wei headed straight to the temple and found the cave which he had never noticed before. Growing in the cave was a single tea shoot. He took the shoot home, planted it, and nurtured it until it grew into a large bush. The tea he made from this bush was fantastic and unlike any tea he had ever tasted. He knew that this tree was indeed a treasure. He gave cuttings of the bush to all of his neighbors and began selling the plant as Tieguanyin, or Iron Goddess of Mercy. The tree of legend still exists and is considered a national treasure. Located near the tree, carved into the cliff is the name of the farmer who, according to legend, found the original tree.
White tea 白茶 • Characteristics: • uncured, non-fermented, non-rubbed, fast-dried green tea • The tealeaves are silver in color and have fine white hair on them. • The tea liquid is yellowish in color and sweet in taste, with natural fragrance. • Benefits: • It helps dispel heat within the human body. • It also enhances immune function • It protects the heart and blood vessels.
White tea 白茶 • It is mainly produced in Fuding 福鼎，Zhenghe 政和, and Songxi松溪 of Fujian Province. • The most well-known White tea: • “yinzhen baihao” 银针白毫 (silver needle with fine hair on them) • “baimudan” 白牡丹 （White Peony ）