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The Cold War
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  1. The Cold War 1945 - 1990

  2. Who? • The United States vs. the Soviet Union

  3. What? • Tension and fears between the “free” and “communist” nations of the world

  4. Why? • The former Allies during WWII had different views concerning the post-war world

  5. Where? • Global – in Europe, in Asia, and in Latin America

  6. How? “Weapons” Used • Propaganda • Diplomatic moves • Scientific competition • Economic competition • Espionage • Subversion

  7. US Goal • Containment of Communism

  8. Government Reorganization to help fight the Cold War • Department of Defense • To replace the War Department • National Security Council • To coordinate making of foreign policy • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • To gather intelligence information

  9. Recommendations • Increase spending on defense (4X what it had been) • Create alliances with Non-Communist countries • Convince the American public of the necessity of increased defense programs

  10. The Cold War in Europe An “Iron Curtain” had descended across Europe Truman Doctrine – military aid if threatened by Communism Marshall Plan - $ to rebuild Europe NATO – military alliance against Communism Berlin Blockade/Airlift – support W. Berlin when USSR attempts take over

  11. The Cold War in Asia Occupation of Japan (1945 – 1951) – Gen. MacArthur; new constitution written. (US Ally) Philippines – independence from USA – 1946 (US Ally) Communist Revolution in China 1949 – People’s Republic of China (communist – main land) vs. Republic of China (non-communist – Taiwan) (US Ally)

  12. In Korea After WWII, Korean peninsula was divided at 38th parallel • North Korea – occupied by USSR (Communist) • South Korea – occupied by Allies (Democratic) • 1950 – North Korean forces invaded the South • US sent troops as part of United Nations forces to defend South Korea from Communist forces

  13. Korean “Conflict” was a different kind of war • Never declared a war by US Congress • US was part of United Nations forces • We didn’t win – truce was signed • Truman (Commander in Chief) fired the very popular General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination when MacArthur publicly questioned Truman and suggested that the US should widen the war and use atomic weapons on China

  14. Election of 1948 Harry Truman Democratic Party Under dog “Give ‘em hell Harry” Thomas Dewey Republican Party Conservative Strom Thurmond States’ Rights Party “Dixiecrats” Anti-civil rights Henry Wallace Progressive Party Feared too aggressive foreign policy

  15. Truman’s Domestic Policy – “Fair Deal” Demobilization after World War II

  16. To convert the wartime economy to a peacetime economy • GI Bill of Rights • $ for education, business ventures, housing to help returning GI’s • Employment Act of 1946 • Commit government to full employment • Get Tough policy on strikes that threatened national safety – threatened to use troops against RR workers, miners and steelworkers • Taft-Hartley Act- Outlawed “closed shop” that required worker to join union before being hired

  17. Truman defeated Dewey • In spite of what the headline read… • Truman attempted a “Fair Deal” • – Nat’l health insurance, • aid to education, • Civil Rights legislation, • funds for public housing, •  minimum wage • Most of Truman’s ideas were defeated because of political conflicts and increased importance of foreign policy (Cold War!) In spite of what headline read, Truman defeated Dewey

  18. The Cold War at Home

  19. A New Red Scare • To protect the country from Communist infiltration • 1951 - McCarran Internal Security Act – illegal to advocate establishment of totalitarian gov’t • House Un-American Activities Committee – investigated gov’t officials, looked for Communists in Boy Scouts & Hollywood (10)– testify or else be held for contempt of Congress

  20. Spy Cases • Alger Hiss – State Department • Denied charges he was a Communist and had given secret documents to a confessed Communist Whittaker Chambers • Was convicted of perjury • Julius & Ethel Rosenberg • US atomic scientists who were executed for giving Soviet scientists information that led to development of Soviet atomic weapons

  21. McCarthyism • Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed Communists were working in the State Department • Tactics included • Unsupported accusations • Reckless cruelty → “witch hunt” • Bullying, black listing • Cast suspicion on innocent people – destroyed reputations and careers (McCarthy was later censured by the Senate)

  22. Cold War in our Culture