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Chapter 14. Water: A Limited Resource. The Importance of Water. Water: shapes continents moderates our climate is essential for all living organisms. The Importance of Water. Composition and polarity. Hydrogen bonding properties. Properties of Water. The Importance of Water.

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the importance of water
The Importance of Water
  • Water:
  • shapes continents
  • moderates our climate
  • is essential for all living organisms
the importance of water3
The Importance of Water

Composition and polarity

Hydrogen bonding properties

  • Properties of Water
the importance of water4
The Importance of Water
  • Properties of Water

Chemical composition of seawater

the importance of water5
The Importance of Water
  • The Hydrologic Cycle
the importance of water6
The Importance of Water
  • Our Supply of Fresh Water
the importance of water7
The Importance of Water
  • Types of water:
  • surface water
  • runoff
  • drainage basin
  • groundwater
  • aquifers
the importance of water8
The Importance of Water
  • Largest watersheds
water use and resource problems
Water Use and Resource Problems
  • Problems fall into 3 categories:
  • Too much
  • Too little
  • Poor quality / contamination (Chap. 22)
water use and resource problems11
Water Use and Resource Problems
  • Too Much Water
  • Removing vegetation and constructing buildings increases flooding potential on flood plains
water use and resource problems12
Water Use and Resource Problems

Channelization

  • Too Much Water
  • Flood Management
water use and resource problems13
Water Use and Resource Problems
  • Too Much Water
  • Flood Management

Levees with natural river

water use and resource problems14
Water Use and Resource Problems
  • Case-in-Point: The Floods of 1993
water use and resource problems15
Water Use and Resource Problems
  • Too Little Water
  • Droughts
  • Overdrawing Surface Waters
  • Aquifer depletion
    • Causes subsidence
    • Can lead to saltwater intrusion
water use and resource problems17
Water Use and Resource Problems
  • Too Little Water
  • Droughts
  • Overdrawing Surface Waters
  • Aquifer depletion
    • Causes subsidence
    • Can lead to saltwater intrusion
  • Salinization of Irrigated Soil
water problems in the us
Water Problems in the US
  • Surface Water
  • Most problems in the West and Southwest
  • Aqueducts transport water from distance sources
water problems in the us20
Water Problems in the US
  • Examples of problems:
  • Mono Lake
  • The Colorado River
  • Basin

Surface Water

water problems in the us21
Water Problems in the US
  • Groundwater
  • Aquifer depletion
water problems in the us22
Water Problems in the US
  • Groundwater
  • Aquifer depletion
  • - Ogallala Aquifer
global water problems
Global Water Problems
  • Water distribution globally is very inequitable
  • In addition, stable runoff varies
  • Drinking Water Problems
  • 1.4 billion lack safe water
  • 2.9 billion lack proper wastewater disposal
global water problems24
Global Water Problems
  • Population Growth and Water Problems
  • India – 8,000 villages have no local water
  • China – water table falling 2-3 m / year
  • Pakistan – lack of water led to riots in 2001
  • Mexico – water table falling 3.5 m / year in Mexico City
global water problems25
Global Water Problems

The Rhine River Basin

  • Sharing Water Resources among Countries
global water problems26
Global Water Problems

1997

  • Sharing Water Resources among Countries

The Aral Sea

1976

global water problems27
Global Water Problems
  • Potentially Volatile International Water Situations
    • Jordan River
    • Nile River

Sharing Water Resources among Countries

water management
Water Management
  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Sustainable water use seeks to provide water to future generations without damaging ecosystems.
water management29
Water Management
  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Dams and Reservoirs
  • Pros –
  • Ensure year-round water supply
  • Hydropower
  • Recreation
water management30
Water Management
  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Dams and Reservoirs
  • Cons –
  • Alter ecosystems
  • Sediment Deposition
water management31
Water Management
  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Dams and Reservoirs
  • Example: Effect of dam on Colorado River in Grand Canyon
water management32
Water Management
  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Water Diversion Projects
water management33
Water Management

Condenses

Simplified process:

Produces steam

Pure water is collected

Water boiled

Salt water

  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Desalinization

Two methods:

1) Distillation

water management34
Water Management

Pressure

salt

H2O

  • Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
  • Desalinization

Two methods:

1) Distillation

2) Reverse osmosis

Salt impermeable membrane

Salt water

Fresh water

water conservation
Water Conservation

Drip or trickle irrigation

  • Reducing Agricultural Water Waste
water conservation36
Water Conservation

Recycling water

Xeriscaping

  • Reducing Agricultural Water Waste
  • Reducing Water Waste in Industry

Reducing Municipal Water Waste