DEFINITION • Human resource management is defined as proactive system wide interventions, with emphasis on fit, linking HRM with strategic planning and cultural change.
Human Resource Management • planning employment needs • recruiting • selecting • training • developing
Changes in Human Resource Environment • cultural diversity • shift from manufacturing to services • women in workforce • dual career families • downsizing • outsourcing • sexual harassment • increase in temporary workers
High-Performance Work Practices • Self-directed work teams • Job rotation • Skills training • Encouraging innovation and creativity • Performance-based pay • Cross-functional integration
Planning Human Resource Needs • determining job needs • job analysis – behaviors necessary to perform job • job description – what, how and when tasks are done • job specifications – minimum acceptable qualifications • determining human resource needs • calculate number of employees needed • assess current employees skills • determine action program • recruit and select employees.
Developing Sources of Supply of Employees • from within the organization (internal) • upgrading (training) • transferring • promoting
Developing Sources of Supply of Employees • from outside the organization (external) • former employees • personal applications • friends • competing firms • labor organizations • employment agencies • schools and colleges.
Recruiting and Selecting Employees • recruitment - creating a pool of potential employees • selection - choosing the specific person for a job • personal background • aptitudes and interests • attitudes and needs • skills and technical abilities • health, energy, and stamina
Selection Process • resume screening • preliminary interview • biographical verification • testing (valid and reliable) • physical • drug • personality • aptitude • in-depth interview • assessment centers or trial period
Training and Development • training • specific detailed job skills • types of training • on-the-job • coaching, job rotation, planned progression • development • broader, covering growth of abilities, attitudes, personality development • executive development programs, sensitivity training, organizational development
New Employee Orientation • goal is to: • reduce turnover • lessen anxiety • acclimate employee • instill work values and ethics.
Performance Appraisals • standard evaluation process • pre-established criteria • may be part of an MBO
Compensating Employees • wages • salaries • employee benefits • income is determined by: • what management is willing to pay • what managers are required to pay • what managers are able to pay.
Employee Benefits • health packages • social security • unemployment compensation • workers compensation • The Family and Medical Leave Act • Voluntary benefits: • holidays, personal days, educational benefits, child-care, elder care
JOB ATTITUDE Three types of work related attitudes: • Job involvement: Identifying with one’s job • Organizational commitment: Identifying with top management and organization • Job satisfaction:Result of the above two and indicates the overall attitude towards job
Job involvement • Time orientation: • Spends enough time to plan and get the work done. • Work orientation: • Priority of job over other activities • People orientation: • Disposition towards people in getting the work done Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
Organizational Commitment • Organization: • Sense of pride and obligation towards the organization. Willing to do anything make the organization successful • Top Management: • Ability to identify, support and contribute with people responsible at the organization. This will not change with the change of top management. • Team orientation: • Disposal toward work with others in teams to realize organizational goals Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
JOB SATISFACTION • Recognition: • Utilization of my expertise and services by the organization. • Development: • How well am I growing along with the organizaiton • Benefits: • My personal gains out of my work in this organization Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
Attitude competency A capacity that exists in a person that leads to behaviour that meets the job demands which brings in desired results beyond knowledge and skill. Is the sum total of a person’s disposition towards the job seen in his behavour of job involvement, organizational commitment and overall satisfaction to meet the job requirements and the ability to bring in desired results. Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
JOB PERFORMANCE • In-role behaviour: • What an employee does in his role • Activities carried out as part of the job description • Extra-role behaviour: • What an employee does beyond his role • Activities are not part of his job specification Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
JOB ATTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE • Co-relation between job involvement and In-role behaviour • Co-relation between job commitment and extra-role behaviour • What are the other co-relations that you can find from your data? • What are the major research questions that arise out of the study? Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
Research Questions? • While it is well accepted that Knowledge, skill and attitude are the components of attitude, why in the educational curriculum and training programs attitude does not figure as a major area? • Is Job satisfaction an attitude at all? • Will job satisfaction leads to good performance or good performance leads to job satisfaction? Dr. MG Jomon, XIMB
“He who cannot change the very fabric of his thought will never be able to change reality”- Anwar-el-Sadat Dr. MG Jomon
CONCEPT OF CHANGE • Act of becoming different: Oxford Dictionary • Basis for all problems: Pre- Socratic philosophers • Transformation in space and time: Subsequently • Anarchic and even lunatic: Alwin Toffler(1990) Dr. MG Jomon
MOTION AND CHANGE Motion is: • Shift of position over time • Variation referred to location Change is: • Transformation referred to a structure • May have nothing to do with location Dr. MG Jomon
DIFFERENCE AND CHANGE Difference refers to: • More than one structure • No similarity among structures Change refers to: • Single structure • Similarity is defined and compared Dr. MG Jomon
GROWTH AND CHANGE Growth: • Physical maturation • Pace goes along with chronological age Change: • Not limited to physical dimension • Pace cannot be determined Dr. MG Jomon
DEVELOPMENT AND CHNAGE Development occurs: • As a result of learning, maturation and experience • Orderly and predictable pattern Change: • Is an independent phenomena • Predictable pattern not foolproof Dr. MG Jomon
HOW DO WE KNOW THE PRESENCE OF CHANGE OR CHANGE HAS HAPPENED? • Is present when differences occurs over a period over the same structure • Recognize change when something is not what it was in time or space • Interpret by trying to make sense of the differences in time and space Dr. MG Jomon
TIME The indefinite continued progress of existence in past, present and future regarded as a whole. Dr. MG Jomon
SPACE A continuous, unlimited area (which may or may not contain objects) Dr. MG Jomon
WHAT IS CHANGE? “Is a complex adaptive system, a system that transforms its behavior in response to its environment or its own circumstances” (Falconer James, 2003) Dr. MG Jomon
CHANGE IS A COMPLEX SYSTEM • Change evolves as a stable system, far from equilibrium, constantly seeking tension rather than resolution. • Intervention does not necessarily cause change, it affect change or alter outcome • Change is not linear- no boundary conditions, no discrete steps • Change behave unpredictably • Change never ends • Change is iterative and acquisitive • It cycle around and augments itself Dr. MG Jomon
CHANGE IS A COMPLEX SYSTEM…Contd. • Not a self optimizing system; a self-degrading system • Has no cause to advance • Always re-explore the general domain. • No interest in pre-determined objectives • Change is recursive: reoccur with differing scope & scale Often “force-fit” approach is considered for change intervention Dr. MG Jomon
CHANGE MANAGEMENT • Engineer:Improve efficiency parameters • Manager: Improve business performance • HR: Improve human capital performance Change Management is to do with: • lead change • enable change • steward change • navigate change Dr. MG Jomon
CHANGE MANAGEMENT Change Management is the business of helping companies ease the pain of transformation (Leon Mark, 2003) Dr. MG Jomon
APPROACH TO CHANGE MANAGEMENT HBR Reading:Cracking the code of change 1. Theory E: Hard approach • Concept: Economic value by shareholder returns • Case: Scott Paper-Al Dunlap 2. Theory O:Soft Approach • Concept Organizational Capability by Building corporate culture • Case: Champion International-Andrew Sigler 3. The EO Theory(combined) • Concept: O&E competitive advantage • Case: GE-Jack Welch ASDA-Archie Norman; Allan Leighton Dr. MG Jomon
HR ROLE IN CHANGE MANAGEMENT: CASE DISCUSSION Organizational transformation in a Taiwanese company • Case in brief • Discussion • Analysis • Learnings Dr. MG Jomon
REPOSITIONING HR FOR BUSINESS RESULTS NTPC CASE • Organizational diagnostic study including plants • Corporate strategy • HR strategy • Training all HR heads • Workshops at plants Dr. MG Jomon
CONCLUSION • HR function is being emerged as a strategic and activities that are not strategic in nature are being slowly sourced out • Change management is being recognized a the key HR strategic function • HR managers are to be change managers in organizations • Change is a complex system… process… navigation of change…Herculean task… Dr. MG Jomon
Human Res HRM FRAMEWORK Session 1 Dr. MG Jomon
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS :PEACEPERSONNEL MANAGEMENT :STABILITYHUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT :DEVELOPMENT
List of HRM FUNCTIONS Kindly classify the following into three HRM functions viz. IR, Personnel and HRD Negotiations, Bargaining, Settlement, Liaisoning, PR, Compliances- legislations, Draft Rules and orders, Implement IR programs, Power and status equations, Grievance handling, Absenteeism, Induction, Performance management, Potential development, Career development, Role analysis, Role efficacy, Role effectiveness, Succession planning, Feedback system, Training and development, Mentoring system, Taskforce, Small Group Activities, Action Research, HRIS, Reward system, Manpower planning, Recruitment and selection, Promotion, Transfers and separations, Wage and salary administration., Time management, Time office, Welfare administration, MIS, Employee Records, Personnel Audit and Retention.