Archaeology. Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park. What do archaeologists do?. What archaeologists don’t do: Study dinosaurs. Spend all their time just digging. Just look for pretty or valuable objects. Just pick up artifacts. Buy or sell artifacts.
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Archaeology Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
What do archaeologists do? What archaeologists don’t do: • Study dinosaurs. • Spend all their time just digging. • Just look for pretty or valuable objects. • Just pick up artifacts. • Buy or sell artifacts. • Just study prehistoric people. Photos from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
What Is Archaeology? • Archaeology is one of four sub-disciplines of Anthropology. • Anthropology is the study of people and their culture. • Anthropology Disciplines: • Archeology • Cultural Anthropology • Linguistic Anthropology • Biological or Physical Anthropology • Archaeology is the systematic, scientific recovery and analysis of artifacts in order to answer questions about past human culture and behavior. Archaeolology Culture Speech & Language Biology of Man
Archaeology Terms • Systematic: A consistent way of studying anything. • Science: Methods and knowledge of studying anything. • Recovery/ Analysis: To collect and study artifacts. • Artifact: Any item resulting from human activity.
Archaeology Terms • Question-based: Archaeologists study artifacts in order to answer questions about how humans lived. • Past: Archaeologists study human cultures that are no longer living. • Culture: Any learned behavior that is shared with others.
History of Archaeology • The first archaeologists • Antiquarians or wealthy collector of artifacts • Early Archeology • It was a combination of several other sciences concerned with the evolution of man. • 1817 • Danish archaeologist Christian Jurgensen Thomsen opened the National Museum Of Antiquities in Copenhagen to the public. • 1859 Origin of Species. • Darwin publishes his book. • 1920’s • Archaeology became a fully fledged scientific discipline. Christian Jurgensen Thomsen Charles Darwin
Early American Archaeology • Earliest American settlers • They debate the origin of American Indians. • 1880’s • Archaeologists and anthropologists study Pueblo Indians as direct descendants of the first people in America. • 1890’s • Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau of American Ethnology proves the “Moundbuilders” were indeed Native Americans. Indian burial mound in Georgia.
Modern Scientific Archaeology 1960’s • The invention of modern scientific excavation techniques • Using a multidisciplinary approach to study people. • Increasing impact of science on archaeology • Refinement of archaeological theory. DNA Botany Dendrochronology
Academic Goals of Archeology • Culture History • Sequence of events • How artifacts change over time • Explain why events happened. • Lifeways Reconstruction • Technology, subsistence, exchange, settlement, social organization, ideology, etc. • Culture Process • Theoretical models on lifeways. Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
Applied Goals of Archaeology • Conveying the past through archaeology. • The proper way to do archeology. • Archaeology is a profession. • Public Education • Museum exhibits • Television shows • Documentary films • Public lectures, digs, or workshops.
Prehistoric Archaeology Before writing. Historical Archaeology Document/writing assisted Classical Archaeology Greek and Roman Biblical Archaeology Underwater Archaeology Shipwrecks or anything else under water. Industrial Archaeology Industrial Revolution and other modern structures Egyptologists, Mayanists, Assyriologists Study of specific civilizations or time periods. Cultural Resource Management Management and assesment of significant cultural resources. Types of Archaeology
Professional Archaeology Groups United States National Associations • American Anthropological Association (AAA) • Archaeological Institute of America • Association of Historical Archaeologists of the Pacific Northwest • Classical Association of the Middle West and South • Classical Association of the Pacific Northwest • Eastern States Archaeological Federation • Southeastern Archaeological Conference • Society for American Archeology Source: http://archaeologic.com/associations.htm
References • Applegate, Darlene. “Anth 130” In-class notes. Western Kentucky University, Spring 2004. • Fagan, Brian M. Archeology: A Brief Introduction. New Jersey: Lindbriar Corp., 2003. • Society for American Archeology. 19 September 2005. <http://www.saa.org/>.