Democracy and the age of Jackson Chapter 3, Section 4
The Election of 1824 • James Monroe continued Washington’s precedent of only serving two terms. In the election of 1824, four D-Rs looked to replace Monroe as the new president. They were: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford. • The various caucuses, or closed meetings of party members, had split D-R support amongst the four, and it was not clear who would come out of the election the victor.
The Election of 1824 • Although Andrew Jackson emerged as the candidate with the most popular votes, neither he nor the runner-up, John Quincy Adams, held a majority of the electoral vote. For the second time in U.S. History, the decision came down to the House of Representatives. When was the first? The election of 1800
The Election of 1824 • Henry Clay urged his supporters to vote for John Quincy Adams, who ultimately became the president. However, under John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay was named Secretary of State. • This led Andrew Jackson to claim that a “corrupt bargain” had been made between the two candidates. • After taking office, John Quincy Adams proposed many internal improvements and funds for scientific exploration. This led individuals like Jackson to criticize him for being too aristocratic.
The Election of 1824 • Jackson began his campaign to win the presidency in 1828 as soon as John Quincy Adams took office. Martin Van Burenworked behind the scenes to gain support for Andrew Jackson. • Andrew Jackson also benefitted from shifts in the electoral process. Identify them below: • Presidential electors chosen by popular vote. • Property requirements for white males lowered.
Jackson Emerges • During the 1820s, Andrew Jackson became the symbol for democracy. So much so, historians refer to this period as Jacksonian Democracy. • Jackson portrayed himself as the “common man” candidate, even though he was much wealthier than John Quincy Adams. • He was also a war hero, having defeated the Creek and Seminole tribesduring the War of 1812. • Jackson’s supporters began calling themselves Democrats, and this support carried him to victory with 56% of the popular vote and 2/3 of the electoral vote.
Jackson Emerges • With Van Buren behind him, Jackson proposed a “return to Jeffersonian principles”—i.e. states’ rightsand a weak federal government. • Jackson’s presidency brought new party structure—one that was disciplined and operated more like a business at times. • Jackson also rewarded political supporters with government jobs, a process known as the “spoils system”. Jackson saw it as a way to ensure party loyalty, but not everyone agreed.
Native American Removal • Most of Jackson’s political support lay in the South, accounting for 80% of the vote he won. They hoped he would remove the 60,000 Native Americans in the South. • What past actions of Jackson’s led them to believe this? His defeats of the Creek and Seminoles during the War of 1812 • The five major southeastern tribes, the Seminole, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Cherokee had attempted to adopt aspects of American culture, but Southerners continued to take away their land.
Native American Removal • In the court case Worchester v. Georgia (1832), the seizure of land in Georgia had been ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. • Jackson, famous for favoring states’ rights over the power of the federal government, stated “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!” • Even before this court case, Jackson had urged Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act which would exchange land in the southeast for land in present-day Oklahoma.
Native American Removal • After a non-representative group of Cherokee Indians agreed to move the entire tribe to Oklahoma, Jackson felt they should honor their part of the treaty. When they did not leave voluntarily, Jackson forced them to leave. • This forced movement was known as the Trail of Tears. On this march, over 4,000 Cherokee Indians would die from disease, exposure or hunger.