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Chapter 24: Mass Society and Democracy. Growth of Industrial Prosperity. The Second Industrial Revolution. Bessemer Process Henry Bessemer Production of steel Cheaper and more efficient process Electricity Thomas Edison’s electrical lights Joseph Swan’s light bulb

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chapter 24 mass society and democracy

Chapter 24: Mass Society and Democracy

Growth of Industrial Prosperity

the second industrial revolution
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • Bessemer Process
    • Henry Bessemer
    • Production of steel
    • Cheaper and more efficient process
  • Electricity
    • Thomas Edison’s electrical lights
    • Joseph Swan’s light bulb
    • Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone
    • Guglielmo Marconi’s radio waves
the second industrial revolution1
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • Internal combustion engine
    • Automobiles
    • The Wright Brothers’ airplane
      • Kitty Hawk, North Carolina 1903
      • Led to airlines beginning in 1919
  • Assembly line (Henry Ford)
    • Manufactured goods more efficiently
    • Instead of the people moving, the product moved down a conveyor belt
    • Led to mass production (benefits?)
organizing the working classes
Organizing the Working Classes
  • Karl Marx
    • Communist Manifesto (1848)
      • Industrial Revolution led to poor factory conditions
      • Capitalism was the problem behind it
      • Claimed all of world history is “history of class struggles”
      • Battle between:
        • Bourgeoisie (Middle Class Oppressors)
          • Owned and ran everything
        • Proletariat (Working Class Oppressed)
          • Controlled and owned nothing
        • Eventually this will lead to revolution and destruction of classes
organizing the working classes1
Organizing the Working Classes
  • Socialism
    • Parties formed based on Marxist ideas
    • German Social Democratic Party
      • Wanted revolution to become one political party
      • Competition for election into parliament
      • Would allow for laws regarding working conditions to be passed
    • However people were divided over how these parties should be run
      • Some wanted true Marxists ideas and revolution
      • Others wanted more peaceful methods (revisionists)
chapter 24 mass society and democracy1

Chapter 24: Mass Society and Democracy

Modern ideas and Uncertainty

modernism
Modernism
  • 1870-1914
  • Rebellion against traditional style of art and literature
  • Literature
    • Addressed social problems
      • Women in society
      • Alcoholism
      • Urban slums
    • Symbolist writers
      • True reality was the human mind
      • Everything seen is just symbols of the mind
modernism1
Modernism
  • Painting
    • Impressionism
      • Went to the outdoors for inspiration (Nature)
      • Claude Monet
    • Postimpressionism
      • Art as a spiritual experience
      • Vincent van Gogh (Starry Nights)
    • Cubism
      • Geometric designs in art
      • Pablo Picasso
    • Abstract
      • Line and color only (Speaks to the soul)
      • Wassily Kandinsky
modernism2
Modernism
  • Architecture
    • Functionalism
      • Buildings should be functional not ornate
      • Simplify buildings
      • Louis H. Sullivan
  • Music
    • Igor Stravinsky
      • The Rite of Spring (1913)
        • Bold rhythms and expressive sound
uncertainty in science
Uncertainty in Science
  • Marie Curie
    • French Scientist
    • Discovered element radium
      • Gave off energy known as radiation
      • Found within an atom
  • Albert Einstein
    • Theory of Relativity
      • Space and time not absolute but relative to who is looking at it
      • Matter is another form of energy
  • Sigmund Freud
    • Psychoanalysis
      • Allows therapist to go deep into a person’s mind and unlock memories
      • Helped to unlock repressed memories to help heal
extreme nationalism
Extreme Nationalism
  • Social Darwinism
    • Herbert Spencer
      • Social progress came from the idea “survival of the fittest”
      • Strong survive and weak die
      • Social progress stresses helping the weak/poor
      • Nations were in a “struggle for existence”
        • Nations compete for resources
        • Used to justify racism and discrimination
extreme nationalism1
Extreme Nationalism
  • Anti-Semitism
    • Hostility towards Jewish people
      • Dreyfus Affair
        • French military officer accused of selling secrets
        • Evidence showed otherwise
      • Russia
        • Pogroms
          • Organized massacres of the Jewish people
          • 25,000 emigrated from Russia
      • Zionism
        • Movement to create homeland for Jews in Palestine