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India World’s largest democracy Oldest democracy in the developing world

India World’s largest democracy Oldest democracy in the developing world. New Development Plans in Bangalore. Skyscrapers in New Delhi. Wealth and Poverty in India. Mumbai. India’s Caste System. India’s Green Revolution.

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India World’s largest democracy Oldest democracy in the developing world

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  1. India World’s largest democracy Oldest democracy in the developing world

  2. New Development Plans in Bangalore

  3. Skyscrapers in New Delhi

  4. Wealth and Poverty in India Mumbai

  5. India’s Caste System

  6. India’s Green Revolution Provide incentives for agricultural production by large land owners, but most of India’s poor are landless. There enough food for the poor, but government prefers to export food surpluses

  7. Population Growth No social security or Medicaid, no mandatory primary education, some government food for work programs

  8. Maurya Empire 322-185BC Ashoka the Great Ancient India Death of Alexander the Great – Maurya Empire – Ashoka the Great

  9. India’s Golden Age Historians refer to the unification of north India under the Guptas (320-550 AD) as a golden era. Besides the advances in mathematics, it saw the emergence of Sanskrit literature, new and enduring forms of Hinduism, and a brilliant temple architecture.

  10. Mughal Empire 1526-1858 Between 712AD and 1526, India was subject to repeated invasions, culminating in the establishment of the Mughal empire in 1526. Turkic origins. Taj Mahal built by the Mughals.

  11. British India British East India Company – 1600-1857 Bought loyalty of various princes (maharajas) and Mughal emperors.

  12. Sepoy Rebellion 1857 Social Uprising, beginning of national awakening Resulted in end of Mughal rule and beginning of direct British rule. British bought loyalty of traditional princes (Maharajas) and land owners (Zamindars) to support direct rule

  13. Direct British Rule 1857-1947

  14. Indian National Congress 1885 – Indian nationalists form the Indian National Congress advocating for independence. 1920s – Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi becomes leader of the INC Advocates nonviolent confrontation against British rule (satyagraha – moral persuasion). Mahatma Ghandi Indian National Congress Leader- pre 1948

  15. Although a devout Hindu, Gandhi was a strong advocate of religious tolerance and resisted calls to partition India into Hindu and Muslim states. Ignored, the partition resulted in violence and ethnic cleansing of Hindu and Muslim communities into West and East Pakistan (Punjab, Bengal) and Gandhi’s assassination by Hindu extremists. Leading the Salt March

  16. India Before and After Partition 1947 – End of British Rule in India, Partition, Creation of East and West Pakistan. Mass migration of Muslims and Hindus across borders begin. Riots and clashes over disputed territory (Kashmir)

  17. Independence 1947 – India proclaimed an independent state under the leadership of the Indian National Congress and Jawaharlal Nehru. India established a parliamentary democracy with elections based on single-member pluralities. Jawaharlal Nehru Congress Party Prime Minister 1947-1964

  18. Indian Parliament - Lok Sabha - House of the People Nehru’s Congress Party would dominate the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and he as Prime Minister from 1947-1964.

  19. Federal System The Panchayat System Village Councils

  20. India’s Congress Party Leadership Nehru would be succeeded by his daughter Indira Gandhi (no relation) who ruled until her assassination in 1984 Followed by her son Rajiv Gandhi who was Prime Minister until his assassination in 1989. Indira Gandhi Prime Minister, CP 1966-1977, 1980-1984 Rajiv Gandhi Prime Minister, CP 1984-1989

  21. Politics and the Economy The administration of India under the Congress party was characterized by economic hardship. India adopted socialistic state controlled economic practices, import-substitution policies, and generally regarded market economics with suspicion. This changed with the election of Congress party Prime Minister VPN Rao in 1991 who began the reversal of decades of CP policy, switching to export-led growth and improving relations with the west. P. V. N. Rao Prime Minister, CP 1991-1996

  22. Politics and Society There are important linguistic and cultural divisions between the Northern Hindus and southern Dravidians.

  23. There are also ethnic/religious divisions with large muslim populations in Kashmir, Northern India, Bengali territory around Bangladesh, and in the southern Indian province of Kerala.

  24. Religious Tension in India There is also a large Sikh population in the Punjab region bordering Pakistan. Ethnic and religious tensions between Hindu nationals, Sikhs, and Muslims have persisted with occasional mass violence, such as the destruction of the 16th century Babri Mosque in 1992 in Ayodhya. Babri Mosque

  25. Ethnic tensions in the 1990s ultimately led to the fall of the Congress party from Power in 1996 to a Hindu nationalist party, the Indian People’s Party or BJP led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee. During BJP rule, both India and Pakistan went officially nuclear and tensions between the two countries mounted. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Prime Minister, BJP 1996, 1998-2004

  26. India Goes Nuclear - 1998

  27. Current Indian Leadership – Return of Congress Party Opposition to the BJP was led by Sonia Gandhi, Italian born wife of former Congress Party leader Rajiv Gandhi. The Congress Party scored a major victory against the BJP in 2004 parliamentary elections. Sonia Gandhi Congress Party Leader

  28. Opposition to foreign born Sonia Gandhi led to the appointment of Manmohan Singh as Prime Minister. Singh would be the first Sikh prime minister in India’s history. Manmoham Singh Prime Minister, CP 2004-present

  29. President of India Head of State, Largely symbolic Prime Minister is head of government Pranab Mukerjee President of India

  30. Political Parties 2004 General Election Indian National Congress Indian People’s Party-BJP

  31. Government Institutions Indian Administrative Service (IAS)

  32. Conditions for Democracy in India Some support democracy (state institutions, elite commitment, middle class, etc.) Figurehead Presidency, Two chamber parliament, well developed bureaucracy (Indian Administrative Service, military and police forces), Supreme Court, Federal System, panchayat (village council) system, major political parties

  33. While others create severe problems for democracy, especially massive poverty (300 million) and religious and ethno-linguistic heterogeneity Will India’s democracy survive? (elites committed to democracy? National unity? National wealth? Private enterprise? Middle class? Support for disadvantaged? Civic participation, civil society, democratic political culture? Education and freedom of information? Favorable international environment?


  35. India Before and After Partition 1947 – End of British Rule in India, Partition, Creation of East and West Pakistan. Mass migration of Muslims and Hindus across borders begin. Riots and clashes over disputed territory (Kashmir)

  36. Disputed Kashmir

  37. Mohammad Ali Jinnah Father of Pakistan 1948 – Jinnah dies, Pakistan suffers from decade of instability, ethnic divisions, Sunni/Shia divisions, poverty, lack of national identity

  38. Military Rule 1958 – General Ayub Khan seizes power in a military coup. Attempted to build a secular state. Undermined by Bengali separatists in East Pakistan General Ayub Khan

  39. Military Rule General Yahya Khan 1969 –General Yahya Kahn assumes power. Sends troops to put down Bengali insurrection in East Pakistan. A brokered peace led to the transformation of East Pakistan into the independent state Bangladesh. Yahya Khan steps down under pressure.

  40. Attempt at Democracy 1971 – Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, head of the Pakistan People’s Party, elected President. Attempts to democratize Pakistan, however, failed, and his rule became more autocratic and corrupt. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

  41. Islamization and Military Rule General Zia ul-Haq 1977 – military coup led by General Zia ul-Haq forces Bhutto to step down. 1979-Bhutto is tried and hanged Zia allowed Islamic radicalism to spread within the army. Provided US funding to Afghanistan mujahedeen against the Soviet invasion and occupation. 1988- General Zia killed in a plane crash along with the American ambassador to Pakistan and a US general.

  42. Attempt at Democratization 1988 – elections following Zia’s death lead to Benazir Bhutto becoming prime minister. Her government was short-lived. Attempts to curb military power and democratize Pakistan failed. Benazir Bhutto

  43. 1990 – Bhutto was succeeded by Nawaz Sharif, head of the Pakistan Muslim League, who becomes Bhutto’s chief political rival for the next decade. Sharif holds power until 1993, when Bhutto is reelected, only to be defeated again in 1997 by Sharif. Charges of corruption were common during periods of civilian rule. Democratic institutions in Pakistan remained weak. Nawaz Sharif

  44. Pakistan Goes Nuclear - 1998 Nuclear program began in 1970s under leadership of A Q Khan “father of the bomb” in Pakistan. In 2004, Khan admits to supplying North Korea with key technologies and materials for weapons production. He has never stood trial. Abdul Qadeer Khan

  45. Back to Military Rule Pervez Musharraf 1999 – Sharif ousted by military coup led by Pervez Musharraf. Both Bhutto and Sharif fled/expelled from Pakistan. Musharraf attempted to return secularization to the Pakistani army.

  46. Islamic Extremism Following September 11, 2001, Musharraf becomes key ally of the United States in the war on terrorism despite fierce opposition from radical Islamic groups within Pakistan. His attempts to crack down on Islamic extremists in Pakistan lead to violence and unrest. Pakistani society becomes more radicalized rather than more secular.

  47. Attempt at Democratization Benazir Bhutto moments before assassination 2008 – Under pressure, Musharraf allows Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif return to Pakistan to take part in parliamentary elections. Bhutto is assassinated shortly after returning. Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party and Sharif’s Pakistan Muslim League won the majority of votes and share power in a unity government.

  48. Toward Democracy? 2008- Musharraf forced to resign Presidency Benazir Bhutto’s husband, Asif Ali Zardari appointed President by Pakistani Parliament Asif Ali Zardari

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