CHAPTER 7 Wireless, Mobile Computing and Mobile Commerce
Chapter Outline • 7.1 Wireless Technologies • 7.2 Wireless Computer Networks and Internet Access • 7.3 Mobile Computing and Mobile commerce • 7.4 Pervasive Computing • 7.5 Wireless Security
Learning Objectives • Discuss the various types of wireless devices and wireless transmission media. • Describe wireless networks according to their effective distance. • Define mobile computing and mobile commerce. • Discuss the major M-commerce applications. • Define pervasive computing and describe two technologies that underlie this technology. • Discuss the four major threats to wireless networks.
Chapter Opening Case (continued) Disconnect? Manufacturers Retailers
7.1 Wireless Technologies • Wireless devices • Devices small enough to easily carry or wear, have sufficient computing power to perform productive tasks and can communicate wirelessly with the Internet. • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) • The standard that enables wireless devices to access Web-based information and services. • Microbrowser • Internet browser with a small file size that can work within the confines of the small screen sizes found on wireless devices and the relatively low bandwidths of wireless networks.
Deepfish Microbrowser • As wireless devices become more powerful, they have browsers with more functionality, such as Deepfish from Microsoft Labs.
Apple iPhone with Safari browser • The Apple iPhone is a wireless device (smart phone) that is powerful enough to run the full-function Apple Safari browser.
Capabilities of Wireless Devices • Cellular telephony • E-mail access • Bluetooth • Short message service • Wi-Fi • Instant messaging • Digital camera • Text messaging • Global positioning system • Organizer • MP2 music player • Scheduler • Video player • Address book • Internet access • Calculator • QWERTY keyboard
Examples of today’s wireless devices Treo 750 Blackberry Curve
Examples of today’s wireless devices (continued) Motorola Q Helio Ocean
Examples of today’s wireless devices (continued) Nokia N95 HTC Touch Dual
Examples of today’s wireless devices (continued) Samsung i620 Nokia E90
Global Star LEO Coverage • Global Star is the leading provider of satellite phone service with its low-earth orbit (LEO) constellation of satellites. The image shows the company’s coverage of the earth.
How the Global Positioning System Works • GPS is supported by 24 MEO satellites that are shared worldwide.
Wireless Transmission Media - Radio • Radio transmission uses radio-wave frequencies to send data directly between transmitters and receivers. • Satellite Radio (digital radio) • offers uninterrupted, near CD-quality music that is beamed to your radio from space. XM satellite radio and Sirius have agreed to merge as of mid-2007.
Wireless Transmission Media - Infrared • Infrared light is red light that is not commonly visible to human eyes; common uses are in remote control units for TVs, VCRs, DVDs, CD players. • You can use the digital camera on your cell phone to see if your TV remote control is working. A test to see if your TV remote control is working.
7.2 Wireless Computer Networks and Internet Access • Short-range wireless networks • Generally have a range of 100 feet or less. • Medium-range wireless networks • Are the familiar wireless local area networks (WLANs). • The most common type of medium-range wireless network is Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi). • Wide-area wireless networks • Connect users to each other and to the Internet over geographically dispersed distances.
*Short Range Wireless Networks • Bluetooth • Can link up to eight devices within a 30-foot area and transmit up to 2.1 megabits per second. • Ultra-wideband • High-bandwidth wireless technology with transmission speeds in excess of 100 megabits per second. • Near-field Communications • shortest range of any wireless network; designed to be embedded in mobile devices such as cell phones and credit cards.
Short Range Wireless Networks-Bluetooth • Can link up to eight devices within a 30-foot area and transmit up to 2.1 megabits per second.
Short Range Wireless Networks- Ultra-Wideband (UWB) • High-bandwidth wireless technology with transmission speeds in excess of 100 megabits per second. • Ultra-wideband has many uses as you can see at the TimeDomain Web site. • This article discusses the use of UWB in fire-fighting.
Short Range Wireless Networks-Near-Field Communications • Shortest range of any wireless network; designed to be embedded in mobile devices such as cell phones and credit cards. • Near-field communications (NFC) is the enabling technology behind (a) contactless payments with credit cards and (b) the substitution of a cell phone for a credit card (the wave of the future).
The Nokia 6131 phone This video shows the Nokia 6131 phone in action. The Nokia 6131 NFC-enabled phone, which is used in the video
*Medium Range Wireless Networks • Medium-range wireless networks are the familiar wireless local area networks (WLANs). • The most common type of medium-range wireless network is Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi). • Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) • Wireless access point • a transmitter with an antenna • Hotspot • A geographical perimeter with in which a wireless access point provides wireless access for users • Wireless network interface card
Diagram of wireless hotspot The irregularity of the hotspot is a result of intervening buildings, trees, etc. Note the protrusions generally follow streets.
Diagram of wireless hotspot – 3D View Wi-Fi hotspots are three-dimensional and thus, roughly spherical, depending on buildings, trees, etc that weaken the signal. This image shows a schematic of a wireless hotspot at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco. It is a sphere with a radius of about 100 meters.
Medium Range Wireless Networks- Wireless Mesh Networks • Wireless mesh networks use multiple Wi-Fi access points to create a wide-area network that can be very large. • A series of interconnected local area networks.
Example of a mesh network A mesh network from Meraki and one node
Wide-Area Wireless Networks • Cellular Radio: use radio waves to provide two-way communication • 1st Generation: analog signals and low bandwidth. • 2nd Generation: digital signals for voice and data communication up to 10 Kbps. • 2.5 Generation: digital voice and data communication up to 144 Kbps. • 3rd Generation: digital voice and data communication up to 384 Kbps when device is moving at walking pace; 128 Kbps when moving in car; and 2Mbps when device is stationary. • Wireless Broadband or WiMax: access range up to 31 miles and data-transfer rate up to 75 Mbps.
University of Phoenix stadium (IT’s About Business 7.1) P. 212 • The stadium uses a distributed antenna system, where relatively low-power antennas are place throughout the facility, rather than having a few high-powered antennas.
7.3 Mobile Computing and Mobile Commerce • Mobile computing • Refers to real-time, wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environments, such as the Internet and an intranet. • Has two major characteristics that differentiate it from other forms of computing: • Mobility • Users carry a mobile device and can initiate a real-time contact with other systems from wherever they happen to be. • Broad reach • Users can be reached instantly when they carry an open mobile device.
Mobility And Broad Reach • Create four value-added attributes that break the barriers of geography and time: • Ubiquity: mobile device can provide information and communications regardless of user’s location. • Convenience and Instant Connectivity: Internet-enabled mobile device makes it easy and fast to access the Web, intranets, and other mobile devices without booting up a PC or placing a call. • Personalization: information can be customized and sent to individual consumers (e.g., as a short message service). • Localization of products and services: knowing a user’s location helps companies advertise their products and services.
Mobile Commerce • Electronic commerce transactions that are conducted in a wireless environment, especially via the Internet. • The development of Mobile Commerce (m-commerce) is driven by the following factors: • Widespread availability of mobile devices • No need for a PC • The “Cell phone culture” • Declining prices • Bandwidth improvement
Example of Mobile Commerce • Speedpass is a keychain RFID device. • When you buy your gas, you simply “wave” your Speedpass near the reader on the gas pump and your credit card is debited. Car key and the Speedpass
Mobile Commerce Applications • Financial Services • Mobile Banking • Wireless Electronic Payment Systems • Micropayments • Mobile (Wireless) Wallets • Wireless Bill Payments • Accessing Information • Mobile Portal • Voice Portal • Location-Based Applications • Shopping from Wireless Devices • Location-based Advertising • Location-based Services
Mobile Commerce Applications - Financial Services • Mobile Banking: • Many banks now offer access to financial & account information, the ability to transfer funds, and receive alerts on digital cell phones, smart phones, and PDAs. • Wireless Electronic Payment Systems: • These systems transfer mobile phones into secure, self-contained purchasing tools capable of instantly authorizing payments over the cellular network. • Micropayments: • Electronic payments for small purchase amounts (generally less than $10). • Mobile (Wireless) Wallets: • Technologies that allow cardholders to make purchases with a single click from their mobile devices. • Wireless Bill Payments: • Services provided by banking institutions that allow customers to pay their bills directly from their cell phones.
Mobile Commerce Applications - Intrabusiness Applications & Accessing Information • Mobile Portal: • Aggregates and provides content and services for mobile users that include news, sports, email, entertainment, travel and restaurant information; community services; and stock trading. • Voice Portal: • Is a Web site with an audio interface and can also be accessed through a standard phone or cell phone.
Mobile Commerce Applications - Location-Based Applications • Shopping from Wireless Devices • Online vendors allow customers to shop from wireless devices. • Location-based Advertising • Marketers know the current locations and preferences of mobile users, they can send user-specific advertising messages to wireless devices about nearby shops, malls and restaurants. • Location-based Services • Provide information to customers about local services and conditions via cell phones.
Other Mobile Computing - Telemedicine Telemedicine predicted in 1924 and today
Other Mobile Computing - Telemetry Applications • Telemetry is the wireless transmission and receipt of data gathered from remote sensors. • Technicians can use telemetry to identify maintenance problems in equipment; • Doctors can monitor patients and control medical equipment from a distance; • Car manufacturers use telemetry for remote vehicle diagnosis and preventive maintenance.
Other Mobile Computing - Automotive Telemetry The OnStar system from GM