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PERSONALITY. CHAPTER 11. What is personality?. An individual’s unique patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations. Classes of Personality Theories. Psychodynamic theories Humanistic theories Trait theories Cognitive-social learning theories.

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personality
PERSONALITY

CHAPTER 11

what is personality
What is personality?
  • An individual’s unique patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations.
classes of personality theories
Classes of Personality Theories
  • Psychodynamic theories
  • Humanistic theories
  • Trait theories
  • Cognitive-social learning theories

© Prentice Hall, 1999

psychodynamic theories
Psychodynamic Theories
  • Personality is the result of unconscious motivations and conflicts.
  • Sigmund Freud is the founder
  • “Neo-Freudians:” Others who followed Freud (his students)
  • Carl Jung Karen Horney
  • Alfred Adler Erik Erikson

© Prentice Hall, 1999

sigmund freud
Sigmund Freud
  • Psychoanalysis - Freud’s theory of personality and method of therapy
  • Freud focused on the “unconscious”
  • drives, desires, needs, and conflicts which we are unaware of guide behavior
  • Freud’s view of humanity is “deterministic” (little free will) and pessimistic
a few facts about freud
A few facts about Freud
  • He was an extremely intelligent man
  • Early in his career, he thought cocaine could be a treatment to help depressed patients, that didn’t work out
  • He smoked so many cigars that he developed terrible cancer of the jaw
  • He sometimes fainted in front of his colleagues (esp. Carl Jung)
freud s 3 levels of consciousness
Freud’s 3 Levels of Consciousness
  • conscious: ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are aware.
  • preconscious: material that can be easily brought into awareness
  • unconscious: material that we can become aware of “only” with great effort and difficulty “if at all”

© Prentice Hall, 1999

freud s 3 personality structures
Freud’s 3 Personality Structures
  • id: The collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression
  • ego: The part of the personality that mediates between the demands of the id and the superego
  • superego: internalized values of family and society (our conscience)

© Prentice Hall, 1999

slide10
Id
  • contains primitive drives or “instincts” including life instincts “eros” and death instincts “thanatos”
  • libido: energy generated by the sexual drive, a life instinct
  • pleasure principle: the id seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
  • primary process thought: id operates on a verybasic primitive type of thought
  • the id is mostly unconscious

© Prentice Hall, 1999

slide11
Ego
  • operates at all 3 levels of consciousness
  • reality principle: ego strives to satisfy id needs within the constraints of the real world and the superego
  • secondary process thought: ego usesa more sophisticated, realistic way of thinking and solving problems

© Prentice Hall, 1999

superego
Superego
  • operates at all 3 levels of consciousness
  • contains the internalized values of family and society
  • it is highly moralistic, like a strict parent
  • GUILT originates in the superego
  • EGO IDEAL - part of the superego, an idealized image of what we think we should be

© Prentice Hall, 1999

freud s 5 psychosexual stages of development
Freud’s 5 Psychosexual Stagesof Development
  • At each stage libido energy is focused on a different part of the body
  • fixation: if too much or too little gratification of the libidinal drive is provided at any stage, the personality becomes “fixated” at that stage and development gets “stuck” at that stage
freud s psychosexual stages order is important not exact times
Freud’s Psychosexual Stagesorder is important, not exact times
  • oral stage (birth - 18 months)
  • anal stage (18 months - 3.5 years)
  • phallic stage (3.5 - 6 years)
  • latency stage (6 years - puberty)
  • genital stage (puberty on)

© Prentice Hall, 1999

oral stage
Oral Stage
  • First stage of personality development in which the infant’s erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue
  • pleasure is derived from biting and sucking
  • oral fixation - chewing, smoking, sarcastic speech, etc.

© Prentice Hall, 1999

anal stage
Anal Stage
  • At this stage, the focus of child and parents is on toilet training.
  • Conflict arises as parents make efforts to toilet train the child. Can lead to an anal fixation if toilet training is too strict
  • anal fixation - being rigid, overly neat, and obsessed with detail, or possibly, being messy and disorganized

© Prentice Hall, 1999

phallic stage
Phallic Stage
  • Erotic feelings center on the genitals
  • Oedipus complex - male child lusts after the mother, sees father as a competitor, fears retaliation
  • Electra complex - female child is attracted to father and resents mother

© Prentice Hall, 1999

latency stage
Latency Stage
  • Libido and sexual energy decrease, the sexual interests of the phallic stage become “dormant” or “latent”
  • “Alfalfa” and other boys might join the “he man woman haters club”
  • child resolves the Oedipus or Electra complex by “identifying” with the same-sex parent during “this” stage

© Prentice Hall, 1999

genital stage
Genital Stage
  • with the arrival of puberty, the individual shows mature romantic and sexual interest in the opposite sex

© Prentice Hall, 1999

carl jung
Carl Jung
  • Swiss psychiatrist who Freud saw as his successor
  • Jun came to disagree with Freud:
    • Freud focused too much on the sexual drive
    • Jung thought the unconscious was a source of energy and strength, not just needs and desires
    • Jung had a more positive view of human nature, people are rational and spiritual
    • development does not stop at puberty
jung s 2 divisions of the unconscious
Jung’s 2 Divisions of the Unconscious
  • personal unconscious: contains each individual’s repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas
  • collective unconscious: contains images and ideas (archetypes) that are common to all humans. These have developed over our evolutionary history and are present at birth

© Prentice Hall, 1999

some archetypes
Some Archetypes
  • mother:a protective presence, source of life
  • hero:one who overcomes
  • persona: our public self (literally “mask”)
  • anima:The expression of feminine traits in the male (love, nurturance, sensitivity)
  • animus:The expression of masculine traits in the female (assertiveness, competitiveness)
  • Shadow: similar to Freud’s id, the “dark side” of our personality

© Prentice Hall, 1999

jung classified people based on the flow of their psychic energy
Jung classified people based on the flow of their “psychic energy”
  • extraverts: energy is directed toward the external world, are social and like working with others (e.g., politicians)

whereas

  • introverts:“psychic energy” is focused more inward on themselves and their own thoughts and feelings (e.g., poets)

© Prentice Hall, 1999

jung also classified people based on how they understand and relate to the world
Jung also classified people based on how they understand and relate to the world
  • rational: regulate their actions primarily by “thinking” or “feeling”

or

  • irrational: regulate their actions through the senses “sensing” or through unconscious processes “intuiting”
  • irrational here does not have any negative connotations (not “crazy”). It’s just how that person attempts to understand the world

© Prentice Hall, 1999

alfred adler
Alfred Adler
  • personality: develops out of our efforts to overcome real or imagined weakness or inferiority
  • compensation: one’s effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses
  • inferiority complex: extreme fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis

199

alfred adler26
Alfred Adler
  • fictional finalism: a goal of perfection that we strive toward but which we will likely not achieve. The important thing is working towards it
  • style of life: a set of beliefs and values that we develop as we strive toward individual and social perfection
karen horney
Karen Horney
  • anxiety:The individual’s reaction to real or imagined threats
  • basic anxiety: develops in childhood out of the child’s dependence on others, esp. parents. Poor parenting could lead to excessive anxiety
  • neurotic trends:Three irrational strategies for coping with emotional problems and minimizing anxiety as we deal with others

© Prentice Hall, 1999

horney s 3 neurotic trends
Horney’s 3 Neurotic Trends
  • 1. moving towards people (submission), being a “people pleaser,” Logic is, If I’m nice to you, then you won’t hurt me.
  • 2. moving against people (aggression), If I hurt you first, then you can’t hurt me.
  • 3. moving away from people (detachment), by avoiding people the person reduces the chance of being hurt
erik erikson
Erik Erikson
  • agreed with Freud’s “psychosexual stages” but felt that development did not stop at puberty
  • probably responsible for the term “identity crisis,” he had his own!
  • posited 8 stages of development, each with a task or “issue” to be resolved
  • success at each stage depends on how the previous stages were resolved
erikson s 8 stages of personality development
Erikson’s 8 Stages of Personality Development
  • trust vs. mistrust (first year of life)*
  • autonomy vs. shame and doubt (ages 1-3)
  • initiative vs. guilt (ages 3-6)
  • industry vs. inferiority (ages 6-13)
  • identity vs. role confusion (adolescence) *
  • intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
  • generativity vs. stagnation (ages 25-60)
  • integrity vs. despair (ages 60 and up)
  • * these two stages are particularly important

© Prentice Hall, 1999

trust vs mistrust
Trust

good maternal relationship builds faith in the predictability of the environment

optimism about the future

Mistrust

bad maternal relationship leads to suspicious and fearful personality

the world is seen as a dangerous place

Trust vs. Mistrust

© Prentice Hall, 1999

identity vs role confusion
Identity

integration of one’s feelings, ideas, and experiences into a coherent identity with clear opinions and goals

Role Confusion

failure to integrate these parts of the personality leads to a lack of personal identity and despair

Identity vs. Role Confusion

© Prentice Hall, 1999

freud vs erickson
Freud vs. Erickson

© Prentice Hall, 1999

humanistic personality theory
Humanistic Personality Theory
  • Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning.

© Prentice Hall, 1999

carl rogers
Carl Rogers
  • Rogers is the best known of the humanists
  • actualizing tendency:The drive of every biological organism to become all it is inherently capable of becoming (even plants).
  • self-actualizing tendency:The drive of human beings to fulfill their potential.
  • fully functioning person: An individual whose self-concept matches his/her inborn potentials. One whose actual self and idealized self are similar

© Prentice Hall, 1999

what makes a fully functioning person
What makes a Fully Functioning Person
  • unconditional positive regard: parental acceptance and love regardless of our behavior leads to becoming a fully functioning person. Also the cardinal rule in humanistic psychotherapy
  • conditional positive regard: acceptance and love dependent on behaving in certain ways and fulfilling certain conditions. What we more often get from parents and out in the real world

© Prentice Hall, 1999

trait theories much of this section is not in the textbook
Trait Theoriesmuch of this section is NOT in the textbook
  • focus is on “describing” personality
  • personality traits are “characteristics,” “dimensions,” or “factors” on which people differ (e.g., assertiveness, friendliness)
  • many trait theorists see genes and heredity as important determinants of personality
  • trait theorists rely heavily of the statistical technique of “factor analysis”

© Prentice Hall, 1999

factor analysis developed by charles spearman
Factor analysis - developed by Charles Spearman
  • method used by Cattell, Sheldon, Eysenck and others to identify the primary dimensions of personality
  • e.g, boldness and sociability are traits or “dimensions” of personality that are related to the primary “factor” of extraversion
  • e.g., moodiness, anxiousness, obsessiveness, and perfectionism are traits that are related to the primary factor of “neuroticism”
hippocrates theory of the humors
Hippocrates’ Theory of the “Humors”

Personality reflects the balance of 4 bodily humors

1. black bile - predominance leads to a sad

(melancholic) personality

2. Yellow bile - predominance leads to an excitable

(choleric) personality

3. Phlegm - predominance leads to a slow sluggish

(phlegmatic) personality

4. Blood - predominance leads to a relaxed, playful

(sanguine) personality

constitutional theory
Constitutional Theory
  • William Sheldon - suggested that body type (somatotype) was predictive of one’s personality type
  • 3 basic body types “Somatotypes”
    • ectomorphic: thin and frail
    • mesomorphic: strong and muscular
    • endomorphic: soft and round
slide41

3 basic “personality types

  • cerebrotonic: quiet, scholarly, timid
  • somatotonic: bold, adventurous
  • visceratonic: cheerful, calm, relaxed
  • Sheldon found strong correlations between
  • being endomorphic and cerebrotonic
  • being mesomorphic and somatotonic
  • being endomorphic and viscerotonic
  • He was a diligent researcher. Unfortunately,
  • his work has not received much recognition.
hans j eysenck s typology
Hans J. Eysenck’s Typology
  • Eysenck was a controversial figure who questioned the efficacy of psychoanalysis
  • he felt we inherited basic response tendencies which interacted with environment to produce personality
  • Eysenck posited two basic traits or “factors” of personality
    • 1. Neuroticism (stability vs. instability)
    • 2. Extraversion-Introversion
slide43
Neuroticism: highly neurotic people have a very active sympathetic nervous system making them unstable and very reactive
  • Extraversion-Introversion:
    • Introverts are highly sensitive to “stimuli” and “condition” easily and strongly. They learn society’s rules too well.
    • Extraverts are NOT very sensitive to “stimuli” and they condition weakly and not easily. They don’t learn society’s rules very well.
slide44
Stable people: tend to function well, whether an introvert or an extravert
  • Neurotic introverts: tend to suffer from fears, phobias, and depression because of their “biology” (they aremelancholic - all superego)
  • Neurotic extraverts: tend to be impulsive and, in the extreme, antisocial (they are choleric - all id)
eysenck s personality dimensions
Eysenck’s Personality Dimensions

(Neurotic)

choleric

melancholic

Hippocrates’ types

phlegmatic

sanguine

© Prentice Hall, 1999

how many factors do we need
How many factors do we need?
  • Eysenck originally suggested two
  • Sheldon suggested three
  • Cattell suggested 16 factors
  • Other theories suggest different numbers
  • Currently, the most popular trait model in psychology is the “BIG FIVE” (the five factor model)
the big 5 dimensions of personality
The “Big 5” Dimensions of Personality

(Neuroticism)

© Prentice Hall, 1999

the situationist position
The Situationist Position
  • “Situationists” argue that people behave in certain ways not because of their traits but because of the situations in which they find themselves
  • Walter Mischel - is the most vocal proponent of this position
  • “Interactionism” a compromise position that acknowledges the roles of both traits and situations
cognitive social learning theories
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
  • Personality has a lot to do with our own perceptions of ourselves and our abilities.
  • Julian Rotter - Locus of Control
  • Albert Bandura - Social Learning Theory

© Prentice Hall, 1999

rotter s locus of control
Rotter’s Locus of Control

locus of control: - An expectancy about whether outcomes are under internal (our) control or external (outside) control.

  • Internal locus: One who believes he can control his/her own fate, takes credit for successes and responsibility for failures
  • external locus: One who believes his fate is determined by chance, luck, or the behavior of others. Responsibility lies outside the person
  • It is generally accepted that having an “internal” locus is psychologically healthier

© Prentice Hall, 1999

bandura s social learning theory
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
  • For Bandura:Personality is behavior and behavior depends on our expectations
  • expectancies: What a person thinks will result from his behaving in a certain way in a certain situation
  • performance standards: standards people develop and use to evaluate their behavior in a variety of situations
  • self-efficacy: The expectancy that one’s efforts will be successful.
bandura s social learning theory52
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
  • Reciprocal determinism - Bandura’s concept that we act as a stimulus on the social environment and the environment, in turn, acts as a stimulus on us.
  • An attractive, socially adept child is received well and valued by his peers. This increases his self-esteem which, in turn, makes him even more valued and liked.
  • Unfortunately, the reverse could be true for an unattractive, socially inept child.
methods of personality assessment
Methods of Personality Assessment
  • personal interviews
  • observation
  • objective tests -(administered and scored in a standard way)
  • projective tests (tests consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material)
two types of personal interviews
Two Types of Personal Interviews
  • unstructured: The interviewer asks questions about any material that comes up and asks follow-up questions whenever appropriate (psychotherapy)
  • structured: The order and content of the questions are fixed and the interviewer adheres to a set format.

© Prentice Hall, 1999

observation
Observation
  • One of the best ways of learning about personality, and behavior in general is direct observation
  • However, because of factors like high cost and huge time requirements, this method is not often used
objective tests
Objective Tests
  • usually “pencil and paper” questionnaires
  • 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF):A personality test created by Cattell that provides scores on the 16 traits he identified (often used in vocational settings)
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):The most widely used personality test of any kind (the standard by which other tests are judged)

© Prentice Hall, 1999

minnesota multiphasic personality inventory mmpi continued
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (continued)
  • The MMPI has 10 “clinical scales”
  • For convenience a person’s MMPI results are describes as a “profile” based on the two or three scales he/she scored highest on
  • The MMPI is very long, having nearly 600 questions!
clinical scales of the mmpi 2
Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2

© Prentice Hall, 1999

projective tests
Projective Tests
  • “projective hypothesis” - the idea that we will project unconscious thoughts and feelings onto an “ambiguous stimulus”
  • These are favored by “psychodynamic” theorists
  • Rorschach test: person responds to ten inkblots; what they see reveals aspects of their personality.
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):a series of pictures with people in various situations. The person tells a story which gives insight into his/her personality and problems

© Prentice Hall, 1999