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The Scientific Revolution. What factors in Europe from the 12th century on helped to prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

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Essential questions

What factors in Europe from the 12th century on helped to prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

Why was the question of the position of the earth and sun in the universe so important in debates about natural science in the late Middle Ages?

In what ways did ancient Greek thinkers like Aristotle, Galen, Ptolemy and others prepare Europeans to make the breakthrough to modern science yet also thwart their efforts to do so somewhat?

Essential Questions


Essential questions continued
Essential Questions (continued) prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

Why are the philosophers Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon seen as key to the development of the scientific method even though neither was actually a scientist?

Why are the contributions of Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton often linked together as the key series of contributions that launched the Scientific Revolution?

How did the development of various instruments for making new kinds of observations and measurements contribute to the development of the Scientific Revolution?


What was the scientific revolution
What Was the Scientific Revolution? prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe

17th century

Began with Kepler, Galileo

Ended with Newton


Science before the scientific revolution

Based almost entirely on reasoning prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

Experimental method or observation wasn’t used at all

Science in medieval times

Alchemy

Astrology

“Science” Before the Scientific Revolution

A medieval alchemist


Factors leading to the scientific revolution

Rise of universities prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

Contact with non-Western societies

The Renaissance

Exploration

Factors Leading to the Scientific Revolution


Rationalism

Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge prepare Europeans and help them make the breakthrough to a modern scientific way of thinking?

René Descartes (1596–1650)

French philosopher and mathematician

Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore, I am”)

Deductive reasoning

Rationalism

René Descartes


Empiricism

The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge

Roger Bacon

Shift toward empiricism a hallmark of the Scientific Revolution

Helped lead to the development of the scientific method

Empiricism

Roger Bacon


Francis bacon and the scientific method

1561–1626 of knowledge

English philosopher and empiricist

Inductive reasoning

Argued for experimental methodology

Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method


The scientific method
The Scientific Method of knowledge

Science as a multiple-step process:

1. Observe an object or phenomenon

2. Develop a theory that explains the object or phenomenon

3. Test the theory with experiments