The Scientific Revolution. Do Now:. What is a REVOLUTION? What are the elements of a REVOLUTION?. What is so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?. a new way of understanding the earth, human body, the heavens a new way of “doing science” - scientific method
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What is so revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?
- that is, end of the heirarchy between the heavens and earth
Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
Sun-centered (heliocentric) universe vs. earth-centered (geocentric)
Challenged circular orbits
Universe of staggering size
Earth no different than any other planet
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)
Most sophisticated observatory of his day
Discovered & named the Supernova
Wanted to prove Copernicus wrong, his measurements led Kepler to prove the heliocentric theory correct
Early pioneer of the experimental method in Florence, Italy
Develops practical inventions (ex: efficient water pump)
Becomes celebrity professor in Italy, becomes a Renaissance courtier (“Renaissance Man”)
His discoveries using the telescope (craters on the moon)
Challenges Catholic monopoly on education - does not intend to attack the Church - sees science and theology as different things
“God has given men their senses, and they are obliged to use them.”
Publishes work in the vernacular - makes science popular (new class of literate elite)
Law of inertia
Challenges categories of “form” and “matter”
Condemned by Catholic Church in 1633, spent the rest of his life in house arrest.
People turn to science for truth and stability. The Church represents violence and contradiction.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Student of Brahe, friend of Galileo’s
Planetary motion conforms to mathematical formula
Planets do not move at uniform speeds in their orbits
The Inductive Method: analyze data, then develop theories
Emphasis on practical, useful knowledge
New attitude toward nature
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Significance of Doubt
Deductive method: work from abstract to data
Spatial relationships can be expressed in mathematical formulas
Father of “analytical geometry”
A set of techniques for acquiring new knowledge about the natural world based on observable, measurable evidence.
Historians like to assign dates to specific time periods, but these dates are always up for debate.
Do you believe the “Scientific Revolution” is over?
Why or why not? Are there examples from our time you can think of?
Explain your answer.