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The Scientific Revolution. Ptolemaic System: Almagest – geocentric universe (earth-centered) Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – heliocentric universe (sun centered) This theory was published in 1543

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Ptolemaic System: Almagest – geocentric universe (earth-centered)
  • Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – heliocentric universe (sun centered)
    • This theory was published in 1543
    • It was charged by Catholic and Protestant alike as illogical, unbiblical, and un-Christian
Galileo Galilei – 1564 – 1642
    • First to use the telescope for astronomical observations
    • 1632 – Published his Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World – Galileo, although devout in his religious faith, contended that the Bible was not a reliable authority on scientific matters
    • Church was prepared to tolerate the heliocentric theory as long as it was only a proposed hypothesis
    • Galileo was forced to recant, but was believed to have muttered, “And yet it does move.”
Sir Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727
    • Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University
    • Invented differential calculus independently but at the same time as Leibniz
    • Newton believed, as did other scientists of his day, that the earth was governed by natural laws
    • Research pointed to the idea of universal gravitation – outlined this theory in his Principia Mathematica
Hobbes vs. Locke –
    • Hobbes – Leviathon (1651)
    • Human beings in their natural state are inclined to a “perpetual and restless desire” desire for power
    • People are self-centered creatures who lack a master
    • They needed a political contract where every person, for the sake of peace and self-defense, set aside personal rights and freedoms, and the people would be ruled by some system of governance, and this would be absolute
Locke – Second Treatise of Government (1690)
    • Tabula Rasa – at birth every human’s mind is a blank page, and all knowledge comes from experience
    • Believed that people had created a government to protect their natural rights to life, liberty, and property
    • The authority of the government is thus derived from the consent of those governed
    • When the government fails to protect the people’s natural rights and instead, interferes with them by attempting to rule absolutely, the people have a right to rebel
    • Honors – Read pages 382 – 387 in your textbooks
      • Please compose a one-page essay summarizing any one of the major developments of the Scientific Revolution covered in Section 1 of Chapter 16
      • Summarizing means to first explain the theory and second and then to explain its importance to modern society
      • Assignment should be one-page typed and double spaced
      • One-inch margins, 12-size font and Times New Roman font