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The Scientific Revolution. Science from Copernicus to Newton. Origins of the New Science. Basis of the Scientific Revolution: 1.  Conflicting classical sources (Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galen) 2.  Examination / focus of Renaissance artists on nature 3.  Development of technical skills

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the scientific revolution

The Scientific Revolution

Science from Copernicus to Newton

origins of the new science
Origins of the New Science

Basis of the Scientific Revolution:

  • 1.  Conflicting classical sources (Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galen)
  • 2.  Examination / focus of Renaissance artists on nature
  • 3.  Development of technical skills
  • 4.  Use of mathematics to understand nature
forces influencing science
Forces influencing science
  • 1.  Aristotelian Philosophy:  provided a starting point
    • Matter made of four elements (earth, wind, water and fire)
  • 2.  Neo-Platonism:  revival of Platonic philosophy
    • emphasis on mathematics
  • 3.  Mystical / alchemy:  metaphysical (spiritual / moral) explanation of the world
    • Paracelsus:  doctor / alchemist who believed that disease could be diagnosed and treated with ingested medicine
  • 4.  Natural Philosophy:  attempt to explain the natural world
characteristics of the scientific revolution
Characteristics of the Scientific Revolution
  • Europeans began to challenge classical thought
  • Materialistic:  all matter made up of the same material & subject to the same laws
  • Mathematical:  use calculation to replace common sense
    • measurable, repeatable phenomena
    • People began to understand the mathematical nature of the universe
  • Science boils down to the mathematical relationship
  • Development of scientific institutions began; Labs, universities, journals, language, careers
nicolaus copernicus 1473 1543
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Polish monk, mathematican and astronomer.
  • Presented first serious challenge to Ptolemy’s geocentric universe.
  • In On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres he proposed heliocentric theory
  • Avoided persecution through death
tycho brahe 1546 1601
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Built Europe’s first modern astronomical laboratory
  • Discovered a supernova and comet.
  • Believed all other planets revolved around the sun while the earth remained stationary.
johannes kepler 1571 1630
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Supported Heliocentric and states that revolutions are elliptical (German)
    • Developed a mathematical formula as proof
    • Developed three laws of planetary motion
laws of planetary motion
Laws of Planetary Motion
  • 1. All planets revolve around he sun in elliptical orbits.
  • 2. The velocity of the planet varies according to its distance from the sun (closer = faster, further = slower)
  • 3. set out mathematical formula to explain the physical relationship among the moving planets and the sun.
galileo galilei 1564 1642
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Asserted that planets are made of roughly same material as the Earth
  • Wrote The Starry Messenger (1610)
  • A Dialog Between the Two Great Systems of the World (1632)
  • Challenged biblical view of the heavens
galileo and the church
Galileo and the Church
  • In 1632, Brought before the Roman Inquisition for teaching “Copernicanism”
  • Church was prepared to tolerate hypothesis (not fact). Galileo forced to recant.
  • Tried and found guilty of heresy, house arrest; Dialogue was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books
isaac newton 1642 1727
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Used experimental philosophy = physics
  • Start with the natural world and then try to explain it
  • Natural philosophy began with an idea and applied it to nature
  • Used math to create models based on nature - used formulas
  • Expressed observations in numeric language
  • Math was a precise language that allowed for replication, collaboration and the creation of new knowledge
  • Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) (1687)
laws of universal gravitation
Laws of Universal Gravitation
  • 1.  Law of motion - every object is at rest or motion and continues until some force affects the object
  • 2.  Rate of change of motion is in proportion to the force which affects the object
  • 3.  To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction
discoveries in anatomy
Discoveries in Anatomy
  • Andreas Vesalius:
    • Galen (Classical source) established classical beliefs regarding anatomy and physiology.

More accurate anatomical sketches  

  • William Harvey:
    • Blood circulates throughout the body in a continuous loop
    • Previously believed that there were two circulation systems
    • Heart as a pump
discoveries in chemistry
Discoveries in Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle
    • supported atomic view of matter - chemistry
    • Boyle's Law:  relationship between pressure and gas
    • Promoted the use to experimental technology
the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • Use of observation and data collection to prove or disprove a hypothesis had been used by various researchers for centuries (especially the Arabs)
  • Scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo revive the use of these techniques in Europe.
  • Later scientists build upon their methods toward a more codified scientific method.
francis bacon
Francis Bacon
  • Challenged Aristotle’s reliance on deductive reasoning.
  • codification of the Scientific Method (inductive empirical experimentalism)
  • The Advancement of Learning (1605)
rene descartes
Rene Descartes
  • Jesuit education; Schooled in Aristotelian philosophy
  • Disagreed with the basis of Aristotelian philosophy
  • Embraced Skepticism (people who use doubt as the basis of knowledge)
  • Rejected absolute construct of knowledge, knowledge based on probability
  • Constructed knowledge based on doubt, but reaffirmed the value of deductive reasoning.
  • Used "proofs" to support philosophical learning
  • Could only accept that which you could prove
    • "I think, therefore I am"
rene descartes19
Rene Descartes
  • Cartesian dualism:  Mind and matter are separate, so to is the physical world from intellectual constructs (basis for science)            
    • Example:  Ontological proof of god:
    • One could only accept God if you could prove it exists
    • Descartes knew that he was not perfect
    • Only a perfect individual could place that concept in ones mind
    • Therefore perfection must exist
    • What is perfection, existence without limits = God
    • proof for God based upon doubt, if you doubt it then it must exist at some level
  • Contrast it to Aristotelian proof:  Causality
  • believed that humans could more completely understand their world by using abstract principles
  • Believed in that nature operated based on a Mechanical set of laws
blaise pascal
Blaise Pascal
  • Scientist who studied probability and mathematics.
  • He had concerns about science’s influence on faith.
  • Wrote Pensees, reflections on faith and science.
scientific societies
Scientific Societies
  • As the importance of science grew, scientific societies formed to promote research and share knowledge.
  • Many had gov’t connections and support: reflecting the growing influence of central governments,
  • Rome (1603), Florence (1657), England (Royal Society, 1662), France (French Academy, 1666), Prussia (Berlin Academy, 1701)