Korean Conflict Presented by: Justin Kidd
War Overview • The Korean war was an armed conflict between the UN supported South Korea and the China/ Soviet Union supported Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) • The war officially began on June 25, 1950 and an armistice was signed July 27, 1953. • The war was the direct result of the division of the Korean peninsula, which was done at the conclusion of the Pacific war (refers to Pacific battles of WWII). The Korean peninsula was officially divided at the 38th parallel by American administrators in 1945. • After rising tensions due to failure free elections and reunification negotiations the North Koreans invaded South Korea in 1950.
Cause: Japanese Dominance (1910-1945) • Japan made Korea its protectorate Eulsa Treaty (1905) and annexed it with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty (1910). • In 1937, General Minami Jiro commanded cultural assimilation by banning Korean language, literature, and culture, to be replaced with that of the Japanese. Starting in 1939 the Korean populace was required to use Japanese names. • At the Cairo Conference, China, UK, and the U.S decided that Korea would become free and independent.
Cause: Japanese Dominance (1910-1945) • In an US/ Soviet agreement the U.S.S.R declared war on Japan on August 9th, 1945. By August 10th the Soviet Army held the northern part of Korea and halted at the 38thParallel. • 3 weeks later, the Americans arrived and began their occupation of the Korean south.
Cause: Division of the Korean Peninsula (1945) • The Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945) the Allied Powers agreed to divide Korea without consulting the Koreans, which directly contradicted the Cairo Conference. • On 8 September 1945, Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge of the United States arrived in Inchon to accept the Japanese surrender south of the 38th parallel. • South Koreans elected President Syngman Rhee. North Koreans elected Kim Il-sung after Soviets established a communist based government. • U.S troops withdrew from South Korea in 1949 leaving them ill equipped and the Soviets left North Korea in 1948.
Escalation of Conflict The North Korean Army (KPA) crossed the 38th parallel, behind artillery fire, on June 25th, 1950.The KPA said that Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army) troops, under command of the régime of the Rhee, had crossed the border first, and that they would arrest and execute Rhee. Hours later, the UN condemns the North Korean invasion. On June 27th, 1950, President Truman orders U.S air and sea forces to aid South Korea. S. Korea was extremely under prepared for armed conflict. Within days of the invasion South Korean soldiers were either retreating backwards or defecting to the North.
Important Battles The Battle of Osan- The first engagement between United States and North Korean forces during the Korean War, on July 5, 1950. Battle of Taejon– It was an early battle between United States and North Korean forces during the Korean War. Forces of the United States Army, attempting to defend the headquarters of the 24th Infantry Division were overwhelmed by the superior Korean People's Army at Taejon. Battle of Inchon - The battle began on September 15, 1950, and ended around September 17. Through a surprise land and water assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were desperately defending, the largely undefended city of Inchon was secured after being bombed by UN forces. The battle ended a string of victories by the invading North Korean People's Army.
UN Forces Push North On 1 October 1950, the UN Command repelled the KPA northwards, past the 38th parallel; the ROK Army crossed after them, into North Korea. Six days later, on 7 October, with UN consent, the UN forces followed the ROK forces northwards. The Eighth United States Army and the ROK Army drove up western Korea, and captured Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, on 19 October 1950. By the end of October the UN forces held 135,000 KPA prisoners of war.
Chinese Intervention After two minor skirmishes on October 25, the first major battles involving Chinese troops occurred on 1 November 1950; deep in North Korea, thousands of PVA soldiers encircled and attacked scattered UN Command units with three-prong assaults (from the north, northwest, and west) and overran the defensive position flanks in the Battle of Unsan. In the east, at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, a US 7th Infantry Division Regimental Combat Team and a USMC division also unprepared for the PVA's three-pronged encirclement tactics, escaped under support fire (15,000 collective casualties).
Resolution of the War Battles and skirmishes continued until July 1953. With the United Nations' acceptance of India's proposed Korean War armistice, the KPA, the PVA, and the UN Command ceased fire on 27 July 1953, with the battle line approximately at the 38th parallel. Upon agreeing to the armistice, there was the establishment of the DMZ which has since been defended by the KPA and ROK, USA and UN Command. The Demilitarized Zone runs northeast of the 38th parallel. The United Nations Command, supported by the United States, the North Korean People's Army, and the Chinese People's Volunteers, signed the Armistice Agreement; ROK President Syngman Rhee refused to sign. The Republic of Korea never participated in the armistice.
Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945) • Meeting between FDR, Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin. The topics of the Conference included: • The dividing up of Germany • The formation of the United Nations • German war reparations • The entry of Soviet forces into the Far-Eastern front (Japan) • The final, and most difficult issue, the future of Poland
The “Iron Curtain” • Winston Churchill’s speech addressed the division between Eastern and Western Europe. With the communist influenced Eastern Europe, and the politically free and communist free West. • The “Iron Curtain” faltered slightly with the death of Josef Stalin but was stabilized with the construction of the Berlin Wall.
Major Events • August 6, 1945: The United States drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima. • August 9, 1945: The United States drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki • June 1947 : Marshall Plan is announced setting a precedent for helping countries combat poverty, disease and malnutrition. • March 2, 1948: Truman's Loyalty Program created to catch Cold War spies. • June 24, 1948 : Berlin Blockade begins lasting 11 months. Berlin Airlift is used to fly in supplies to West Germany. • April 4, 1949 : NATO ratified • May 12, 1949 : Berlin Blockade ends.
Major Events cont’d • August 29, 1949: Russia tests its first atomic bomb. • January 30, 1950 - Truman approved H-bomb development. • February 1950: Joe McCarthy begins Communist witch hunt and loyalty tests. • June 24, 1950: Korean War begins. Stalin supports North Korea who invade South Korea equipped with Soviet weapons. • July 1953 : Korean War ends • May 1955 : Warsaw Pact formed. Warsaw Pact signed by eight communist states in Eastern Europe, which was established at the USSR’s initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw, Poland.
Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War http://home.aubg.bg/students/HHP030/ http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/events-timelines/03-cold-war-timeline.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Pact