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Korean War June 1950 – July 1953
Korean History • In 1910 Japan invaded Korea and took power over the area. They held it until WWII. • At the Potsdam Conference, it was decided that Japan would be stripped of Korea, and it would be split between the United States and the Soviets. It was split on the 38th parallel. • The United States received control of the South and Soviets controlled the North.
North Korea • Borders China and South Korea. • Communist state • International trade is highly restricted • Capitol city: Pyongyang • The people are given education and healthcare free of charge but are very oppressed.
South Korea • Borders North Korea & water • Democratic nation • Very industrialized (factories and economic growth) • Humid climate • Capitol city: Seoul • Heavily dependant on international trade
June 25, 1950 • Forces in North Korea decide to cross the 38th parallel to attack South Korea. • South Korea is not prepared and the North Koreans take the capitol city. • United States (President Truman) sent in troops to help South Korea in the name of “containment.” • It was thought North Korea was given aid by the Soviets to expand Communism into South Korea.
UN Sends HELP • The UN agrees to send in troops to help South Korea. • Truman chooses Douglas McArthur to led the UN forces. • By the end of 1950, other nations were supplying troops to aid South Korea. • UN had a goal to push the North Koreans back over the 38th parallel.
Push and Pull • September 1950: North Korean forces push UN forces all the way to Pusan. • McArthur devises a plan to attack. They recaptured Seoul through the port city of Inchon. • By October 1 the North Koreans were being attacked from the north at Inchon and from the south at Pusan. They were pushed back over the 38th parallel.
CHINA gets involved • New goal for the war: Take North Korea and make it one unified DEMOCRATIC Korea. • They didn’t think China or Soviets would attack. THEY DID! • They took Pyongyang and headed to the Yalu River. The Chinese warned not to go any further. • Thousands of Chinese soldiers crossed the Yalu River into North Korea to aid the soldiers. • Within weeks Seoul was under communist control again.
Stalemate • A situation in which neither side was able to gain any ground or have a decisive victory. • The Korean War came to a stalemate. It lasted for two years with fighting along the 38th parallel. • Truman and McArthur couldn’t agree on what to do about it.
Arguments • Truman wanted to negotiate an end to the fighting. • McArthur wanted to attack China now by bombing or invading the country. • Truman realized that this would lead to a much greater war. He did NOT want this. • April 11, 1951 Truman relieved McArthur of his duties due to insubordination.
An End (well kind of) • Negotiations began in July 1951 and lasted two years. • Finally a cease fire agreement was signed on July 27, 1953. • This agreement also created a demilitarized zone for a mile and a half around the 38th parallel. • This is how North and South Korea still are today.