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Chapter 14 Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy
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  1. Chapter 14 Andrew Jackson and the Growth of American Democracy Andrew Jackson Song Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson: Good, Bad, and the Presidency

  2. 14.1 Introduction *The election of 1828 pitted John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson in one of the dirtiest elections in American History. *Both sides practiced mudslinging. *Adams was accused of being an alcoholic, and using public money to purchase gambling furniture. *Jackson’s wife was accused of marrying him while still married to another man, and his mother was accused of immoral behavior. *But when the votes were counted Jackson was clearly the people’s choice. *Jackson proved to be a controversial Jackson was known as “Old Hickory” president, and in this chapter you will discover by his troops because he was as tough how he was viewed by several groups of as “the hardest wood in creation.” Americans, from the rich to the common people.

  3. 14.2 The Inauguration of Andrew Jackson *March 4,1829 more than 10,000 people from every state crowd into Washington D.C. to witness the inauguration of their hero. *Many of the people flocking to the capital are first-time voters. *Until the 1820’s only white men with property were allowed to vote. *The new states forming west of the Appalachians challenge this argument. *With the western states leading the way, voting laws are changed to give all white men, the “common man” the right to vote. *More than three times as many people vote in 1828 than in 1824 (over 1,000,000). *Jackson promises to return the government to the people.

  4. Test Prep • Why did three times as many people vote in the presidential election of 1828 as voted in 1824? • A) By 1828, women had gained the right to vote in some states, while no women could vote in 1824. • B) By 1828, voting laws had been changed in most states to give all white men the right to vote. • C) The United States had twice as many states in 1828 as it had in 1824. • D) The candidates running for president in 1828 were more interesting than those running in 1824. • Answer: B) By 1828, voting laws had been changed in most states to give all white men the right to vote.

  5. Test Prep • Andrew Jackson’s election victory in 1828 depended on support from • A) the rich and well-born. • B) Native Americans. • C) the common people. • D) the states’ rights supporters. • Answer: C) the common people.

  6. 14.3 From Frontier to the White House *Andrew Jackson is born in South Carolina in 1767. *His father dies when he is born, leaving Jackson and his family in poverty. *When he is 13, Jackson joins the local militia and is captured by the British. *Jackson is sliced by a British officer and carries his scars with him to the grave. The Frontier Lawyer *Jackson becomes a lawyer in North Carolina after the war. *He heads west to Nashville in 1788 to practice law. *He soon earns enough money to buy land and slaves and sets himself up as a gentleman planter.

  7. 14.3 Continued… *Jackson is known for his hot temper. *When a slave trader named Charles Dickenson insults Jackson’s wife, he challenges Dickenson to a duel and shoots him dead with one shot. The People’s Choice *Even though Jackson enters politics serving in the House and Senate from Tennessee, he does not become widely known until the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. *That battle makes “Old Hickory” a national hero.

  8. 14.3 Continued… *1824 Jackson runs for president against Henry Clay, William Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. *Though Jackson wins the most popular votes and most of the electoral votes, he does not win a majority of the electoral votes, so the decision goes to the House of Representative. *The House chooses John Quincy Adams for president and Henry Clay for vice- president. *Jackson supporters promise revenge in 1828. *They use the time between elections to build a new party, the Democratic Party, and they promise this new party will represent the common people. Donkey first becomes a symbol of the Democratic Party in 1870’s political cartoons

  9. 14.3 Continued… *Jackson supporters work feverishly to reach the nation’s new voters. *They organize huge parades, picnics, and rallies. *They sing the nation’s first campaign song, “The Hunters of Kentucky.” *They wear Jackson badges, carry hickory sticks, and chant campaign slogans like, “Adams can write, but Jackson can fight.” *The result is a great victory for Jackson. *But it is also a victory for the idea that the common people should control their government. *This becomes known as Jacksonian Democracy. The Hunter’s of Kentucky

  10. 14.4 Jackson’s Approach to Governing The Kitchen Cabinet *Jackson relies on a close group of advisors, known as the “kitchen cabinet” because they often meet Jackson in the White House kitchen. *The rich and well-born do not trust Jackson’s kitchen cabinet, but he continues to turn to them for advice. Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet The Spoils System *Jackson replaced many Republican office- holders with loyal Democrats. *The practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs is called the spoils system.

  11. Test Prep • Jackson’s practice of rewarding political supporters with the government jobs became known as • A) the spoils system. • B) Jacksonian democracy. • C) mudslinging. • D) a corrupt bargain. • Answer: A) the spoils system.

  12. 14.5 The Nullification Crisis *1828 Congress passes a law that raises tariffs (taxes) on imported goods such as cloth and glass. *They do this to encourage the growth of manufacturing in the United States. *Higher tariffs mean higher prices for imported factory goods. American manufacturers can then outsell their foreign competitors. *Northern states favor these new tariffs because they have many factories that will benefit from them. *Southern states oppose the new tariffs because they will have to pay more for factory goods, and because high tariffs will also discourage trade among other nations. *Jackson’s vice president, John C. Calhoun calls on southern states to declare the tariff “null and void.”

  13. 14.5 Continued… *Jackson understands southerner’s concerns. *1832 Jackson signs new law that lowers tariffs. *South Carolina is not satisfied and proclaims the right to nullify, or reject, both the 1828 and1832 tariffs. This is called nullification. *South Carolina threatens to secede (leave the Union) if the national government tries to enforce the tariff laws. *Jackson is outraged and asks Congress to pass the Force Bill which allows him to use the federal army to collect tariffs if needed. *At the same time Congress passes a compromise bill that lowers tariffs still further. *Faced with such firm opposition, South Carolina backs down and the nullification crisis ends, at least for now.

  14. Test Prep • The Nullification Crisis was triggered by strong opposition to the • A) Force Bill. • B) Indian Removal Act. • C) Tariff of Abominations. • D) Bank of the United States. • Answer: C) Tariff of Abominations.

  15. Test Prep • Jackson’s handling of the Nullification Crisis was most upsetting to • A) the rich and well-born. • B) Native Americans. • C) the common people. • D) states’ rights supporters. • Answer: D) states’ rights supporters.

  16. 14.6 Jackson Battles the Bank of the United States *Jackson see the Bank of the United States as benefiting rich Eastern investors at the expense of farmers, workers, and state banks. *The bank’s charter (contract) will be up for renewal in 1836. *Henry Clay wants to be president in 1832. *Clay pushes a bill through Congress that renews the bank’s charter four years earlier. *Clay hopes that if Jackson signs the bill, he will lose support of the farmers, and if he vetoes the bill, he will lose support from the businesspeople who depend on the bank for loans. *Either way, Clay figures Jackson will lose Jackson opponents accuse him of abusing enough support for Clay to win the 1832 presidential powers and ruling like a election. tyrannical king, trampling on the Constitution.

  17. 14.6 Continued… *Jackson vetoes the re-charter bill. *Even though the Supreme Court rules the Bank is constitutional, Jackson calls it an unconstitutional monopoly that exists mainly to make the rich richer. *1832 Jackson is re-elected by a large majority. A cartoon praising Andrew Jackson for destroying the Second Bank of the United States, 1833. *Then, in 1833, he orders the secretary of the treasury to remove all federal deposits from the Bank, and put the money in state banks. *Business owners beg Jackson not to kill the Bank, but he believes killing the bank is a victory for economic democracy.

  18. Test Prep • Who was most upset by Jackson’s crusade to destroy the Bank of the United States? • A) the rich and well-born • B) Native Americans • C) the common people • D) states’ rights supporters • Answer: A) the rich and well-born

  19. 14.7 Jackson’s Indian Policy *Jackson has little sympathy for Indians. *Native Americans call him “Sharp Knife.” *After independence, the new national government tries to settle conflicts between Indians and settlers with treaties. *Despite these treaties, Native Americans continue to be pushed off their land. *By the time Jackson becomes president, Before becoming president, Andrew only 125,000 Indians still live east of the Jackson leads forces to defeat the Mississippi River. Creek and Seminole Indians. Indians are forced off their lands.

  20. 14.7 Continued… *Most of the Eastern Indians live in the south. *They belong to five tribes: 1) Seminole 2) Creek 3) Choctaw 4) Chickasaw 5) Cherokee *Hoping to remain in their homelands, these five tribes adopt many white ways, such as farming, learning to read and write, and creating their own Constitution. *Whites call these Indians the “Five Civilized Tribes.” *The Five Civilized Tribes hope to live in peace with their neighbors. *Whites do not share this goal.

  21. Test Prep • Why did many whites call the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole the “Five Civilized Tribes”? • A) These groups had never gone to war against whites. • B) These groups had learned and adopted many white ways. • C) These groups had won the right to elect representatives to Congress. • D) These groups had agreed to leave their homelands peacefully. • Answer: B) These groups had learned and adopted many white ways.

  22. 14.7 Continued… The Indian Removal Act *1830 Congress passes the Indian Removal Act. *Makes treaties with Indian tribes to trade their lands for new territory on the Great Plains. *1831 Supreme Court rules that Indians have the right to their lands. *Jackson disagrees and uses military to remove them by force.

  23. 14.7 Continued… The Trail of Tears *Many whites are ashamed. *Washington is flooded with protests over the treatment of Indians. *1836 thousands of Creeks who refuse to leave Alabama are rounded up and marched west in handcuffs. *1838 under president Martin Van Buren, more than 17,000 Cherokee are dragged from their homes in Georgia and herded west by federal troops. *Four thousand die during their long walk. *Those who survive remember that journey as their “Trail of Tears.” *Some Seminole find refuge (safety) in the Florida swamps, where their descendents still live today. *Jackson is proud of having “solved” the Indian problem, but he has simply moved the conflict across the mighty Mississippi.

  24. Test Prep • Which group was most hurt by Jackson’s removal policy? • A) the rich and well-born • B) Native Americans • C) the common people • D) states’ rights supporters • Answer: B) Native Americans

  25. 14.8 Chapter Summary *Andrew Jackson was elected in 1828 with help of first-time voters, many of them farmers and frontiersmen. *Jackson supporters celebrated the election as a victory for the “common man.” *As president, Jackson fought a number of battles for “the people.” *He used his “Kitchen Cabinet” for advice. *He waged war on the powerful Bank of the United States. *A controversy over higher tariffs led to the nullification crisis, in which South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union. *Jackson’s Indian policy was simple: Remove the Indians. *The Indian Removal Act caused great suffering for thousands of Indians. *But Jackson had only moved the conflict between whites and Indians to the west. *But in the next chapter you will read that the west is where white Americans were looking for new opportunities, and a way to expand their way of life across the continent.