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Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin

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  1. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • SECTION (2): CONTRASTING EUROPEAN REGIONS I: • THE PARIS BASIN

  2. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PHYSICAL PROCESSES Climate • Cool temperate oceanic climate • Moderate temperatures of 5ºC during the winter and about 16ºC during the summer • Rainfall – around 800 mm per annum • Influence of Atlantic depressions • Cool temperate continental type climate • Colder winters - 2ºC, and summer temperatures tend to be warmer - approximately 19ºC • Rainfall – slightly lower at 700 mm per annum • Convectional rainfall

  3. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PHYSICAL PROCESSES Soils • Varied • Chalk soils in Champagne to clay soils in Brie • Different farming areas – ‘pays’ in France • Thick layer of fertile stoneless limon (loess) soils • Windblown soils from a periglacial environment • Fertile, easily worked soils

  4. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PHYSICAL PROCESSES Relief and drainage • Sedimentary rocks • Downwarp or syncline in the Earth’s crust • Escarpments forming a rim outside of this to the east and west • River Seine and its tributaries, the river Somme and Loire

  5. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Agriculture • Farming in the Paris Basin is specialised

  6. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Beauce • Mechanisation of cereal production of wheat and barley • Sugar beet • Long growing season • Well dispersed rainfall • Long hours of sunshine for the ripening of crops • EEC in 1957 guaranteed prices for farm produce • Called the ‘Granary of France’

  7. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Brie • Damper climate and clay soils that encourage growth of pastures • Dairy products are sold to the large urban market of the nearby city of Paris – cheese and butter • Stocking rates are high • Profitable and intensive • Market gardening • High value crops • Excellent communication links

  8. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Normandy • Concentration of dairy production, e.g. Danone • Famous Camembert cheese • Maritime influences • Apple industry – ‘Golden Delicious’ • Soil is rich in calcium • Thriving bloodstock industry

  9. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES The dry Champagne region • High summer temperatures • Falaise d’Ile de France and Cote de Meuse • Viticulture • Reims • Developed by the Benedictine monks

  10. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES The dry Champagne region (continued) • Farm size is large compared to EU average with most farms over 400 hectares • Competition from other land uses, e.g. industry • Farmers are young and well educated • Raw materials for a variety of food processing industries • Fertile alluvial soils close to the river Seine

  11. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Energy Production • Oil and gas imported through Le Havre port • France imports 95 per cent of its oil and is the third largest consumer in Europe • No natural gas • In 2004 coal production ceased in France and it is now imported • 1975 oil crisis: France reduced its dependency on oil and invested in nuclear energy

  12. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Energy Production (continued) • Main energy supply: • 75 per cent of French electricity is nuclear generated • cleaner than fossil fuels • nuclear waste is highly toxic • secure storage is a big challenge in France

  13. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Manufacturing activities • Paris Basin contains over 20 per cent of the national workforce • Long tradition of manufacturing extending back to the seventeenth century • River Seine is a navigable river • Deep-water ports have allowed heavy industries to import and export goods • Steel, oil refining, petrochemical and textiles • Access to sea through the port of Le Havre

  14. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Manufacturing activities • Low-lying nature of the region has allowed ease of construction • Nodal point with excellent communications links • The Paris metro, the TGV (Trans Grand Vitesse) a high-speed train that links London via the Channel Tunnel and French roads • Two international airports, e.g. Charles de Gaulle and Orly • Large, well-educated workforce with 12 million people, 21 million when its suburbs are included • Affluent market – can afford luxury goods such as Chanel

  15. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Types of activities Fashion industry • Niche market for ‘haute couture’ • Cosmetic Valley in Chartres • Decentralisation of French industry away from Paris Food processing • Is a major industry • Rich availability of fresh agricultural products

  16. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Types of activities Car manufacturing Citroen Printing and publishing Books, magazines and newspapers are printed in the Latin Quarter

  17. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Types of activities High tech industries • Seventeen universities and many high quality research colleges in Paris are attractive to high tech industries • Located in the newer suburbs of Marne-La-Vallée as industrial estates and technological parks • 85 per cent of all French research is carried out in the Paris Basin

  18. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES • Deindustrialisation has affected the region since the 1970s and employment in the manufacturing sector has halved between 1975 and 2005 • Most French manufacturing industries have their headquarters in Paris • Unemployment is a problem for the Paris Basin and in 2006 it stood at 9 per cent

  19. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Tourism • Long tradition of tourism • Highly developed • Easily accessible by all modes of transport both national and international • Rich variety of cultural attractions, famous buildings, museums and galleries • Normandy beaches used during WW2

  20. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Tourism (continued) • Norman castles • Religious sites such as Reims Cathedral and Notre Dame – 13 million visitors annually • Eiffel Tower – more than 6 million visitors annually • Louvre gallery home to the Mona Lisa

  21. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Tourism (continued) • French presidents: • The Pompidou centre was the responsibility of President George Pompidou in 1977 • The transformation of the Les Halles in 1971 was the legacy of President Giscard d’Estaing • President Francois Mitterrand’s introduction of a glass pyramid in front of the Louvre gallery in 1984

  22. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Tourism (continued) • Theme parks – Parc Asterix and Disneyland Paris • Marne-La-Vallée nearby – shopping and is the fashion capital of the world • Champs-Elysée and Boulevard Haussmann • 30 million visitors a year and 7 per cent of the workforce of Paris are involved in the tourist industry

  23. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Transport Paris is a primate city • Transport network is radial • TGV trains travel at speeds of 250 km/hr and connects Paris with European cities such as London and Brussels • TGV line was opened in 1981 • Double-decker carriages • Efficient and environmentally friendly

  24. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Transport (continued) • The underground metro used daily by Parisian commuters • SNCF and RER • International airports, roads and river taxis • Motorways • Canals – used by tourists and industry

  25. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • The Growth of Paris – The Schéma Directeur • Paris has a population of over 11 million people and is the largest city in France • Developed in medieval times • Bridging point and a defensive settlement on the river Seine • Island in the middle of the river called Ile-de-France • Developed as a food processing centre for the rich agricultural lands • City is a major employer with mills, dairy processing and viticulture

  26. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • The Growth of Paris – The Schéma Directeur (continued) • Centre of government and most civil service jobs • Vast migrant population with 1.3 million migrants living there • Urban sprawl to accommodate its growing population • 14 million by 2050 • Traffic congestion • Urban decay and inner city decline

  27. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • The Growth of Paris – The Schéma Directeur (continued) • Schéma Directeur - an urban plan adopted in 1964 to control the growth of Paris and to improve poorer suburbs and employment opportunities • Renewed by the French government from 1994 to 2015 • Setting up of listed buildings • Investment in public transport, e.g. TGV • Development of suburban nodes or growth centres – La Défense • Urban renewal and regeneration projects

  28. Chapter 25: The Dynamics of European Regions I: The Paris Basin • The Growth of Paris – The Schéma Directeur (continued) • Developed new towns or satellite towns around Paris, e.g. Marne-La-Vallée • Areas for recreational land use were designated along the River Seine, e.g. boating activities • Les Halles food market moved to the Rungis on the edge of the city to reduce traffic congestion • Schéma Directeur has been successful • Paris Basin region will become a metropolitan area