CHAPTER 15: RIZAL’S SECOND SOJOURN IN PARIS AND THE UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1889
UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1889 • World fair • 100th anniversary of the storming of Bastille • the symbol for the beginning of the French Revolution • Absolute Monarchy was overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights
KIDLAT CLUB • It was founded by: • Rizal • to bring together young Filipinos in the French capital • enjoy their sojourn in the city during the duration of the Universal Exposition. • It will disappear: • like lightning (temporary nature)
INDIOS BRAVOS • proud of the name Indio • make our Spanish enemies revise their conception of the term • The Indios Bravos (brave Indians) replaced : • the ephemeral Kidlat Club. • Members pledged: • to excel in intellectual and physical prowess in order to win the admiration of the foreigners • sword and the pistol. • Judo
MAX HAVELAAR (DUTCH) CORRUPT GOVT OF DUTCH COLONY IN INDONESIA CULTIVATION SYSTEM: TRADABLE CROPS TAX COLLECTION: COMMISSION NOT STAPLE CROPS: RICE RESULT OF NOVEL: AWARENESS OF EUROPE KILLED COLONIALISM
RDLM SOCIETY • initials of the society’s secret name: • Redencion de los Malayos(Redemption of the the Malays). • The aim of the secret society: • “propagation of all useful knowledge – scientific, artistic, literary, etc. – in the Phil.” (patterned after Freemasonry) • Letter to Blumentritt: • If it is impossible for me to give freedom to my country • at least I should like to give it to them in other lands (Borneo).
ANNOTATED EDITION OF MORGA PUBLISHED • Error: appraising the events of the past in the light of present standards Blumentritt on Rizal • abuses of the friars should not be construed to mean the Catholicism is bad. Dedicated to the Filipinos they would know of their glorious past clothes, government, laws, writing, literature, religion, arts, sciences, and commerce Filipinos were already civilized before the advent of Spain blasted the historical heresies of the Spanish vs early Filipinos were savages and were of low mentality.
THE PHILIPPINES WITHIN A CENTURY • Rizal predicted: • tragic end of Spain’s sovereignty in Asia. • Colonies established to subserve the policy and commerce of the sovereign country • all eventually become independent
INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS • Filipinos had abandoned their pre-Spanish industries and worked less than their ancestors • people could not enjoy the fruits of their labor • it is easier for a poor man to enter heaven than for a rich man
PROJECT FOR FILIPINO COLLEGE IN HONGKONG • A rich Filipino resident in Paris, Mr. Mariano Cunanan, from Mexico, Pampanga • promised to help him raise P40,000 as initial capital for the college. • This project of Rizal to establish a modern college in Hong Kong • did not materialize
POR TELEFONO • This satirical pamphlet under the authorship of “Dimas Alang” is: • a witty satire which ridicules Fr. Font. • Rizal predicted much ahead of his times that people could carry on: • overseas telephonic conversations --- 12 years after the publication of Rizal’s “PorTelefono.”
2 REASONS TO LEAVE PARIS • The cost of living in Paris was very high • because of the Universal Exposition • The gay social life of the city: • hampered his literary works
NEW ORTOGRAPHY OF TAGALOG LANGUAGE • The tagalong letters k and w should be used instead of the Spanish c and o. • Salacot = salakot/ arao = araw
PRESENTIMENT OF DEATH • Letter to del Pilar: • In my childhood I had a strange belief that I would not reach 30 years of age. • I am preparing myself for death. • LaongLaan (Ever Ready) is my true name.
RIZAL CRITICIZES MADRID FILIPINOS FOR GAMBLING • Rizal’s letter to del Pilar: • Coming to Europe to gamble and to amuse himself ? • but to work for his liberty and for the dignity of his race • We are serving the friars’ scheme • We in whom the poor people place their modest hopes. • The gambling Filipinos in Madrid: • were angry :Rizal’s moralizing • “Papa” (Pope) instead of “Pepe”
BAD NEWS FROM HOME • The management of the Dominican Hacienda: • continually raised the land rents • The Dominican Order filed a suit in court : • to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba. • Jose’s letter to Soledad • I have caused much harm to our family • raises us up and gives us more dignity in the eyes of our enemies • to fall with the head high • sad thing is to fall with the stain of dishonor
PREPARATION TO GO HOME • He could not stay in Brussels writing a book: • while his family are persecuted • I want to go back to the Philippines • We are not making any progress by following prudence
DECISION TO GO TO MADRID • Something happened that suddenly made him change his plan. • letter from Paciano • lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila • but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain • A lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid • Rizal wrote to del Pilar: • retaining the latter’s services as lawyer.
ROMANCE WITH PETITE JACOBY • niece of his landladies • brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal, as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid
FAILURE TO GET JUSTICE FOR FAMILY Associacion Hispano-Filipina securing justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants Liberal Spanish Newspapers injustices committed by Gov.- Gen.Weyler& the Dominicans Minister of Colonies (SeñorFabie) • Nothing came out of Rizal’s interview with Minister Fabie • Sympathized with the Filipino cause • El Resumen (Spanish Newspaper) Ejectment order by the Dominicans • parents had been forcibly ejected from their home • aid of the liberal Spanish statesmen • statesmen merely gave him honeyed words of sympathy and nothing else • Blumentritt urged Jose to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina doesn’t have powerful friends to bring him to her nor gold to grease the palms of authorities
DUEL • The duel was based on a code of honour. • Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction," • to restore one's honour by demonstrating a: • willingness to risk one's life for it
ABORTED DUEL WITH ANTONIO LUNA • Luna was blaming Rizal for his failure to win her • Because of jealousy and the effects of alcohol, Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks about Nellie • Angered by the slanderous remarks: • Jose challenged Luna to a duel.
RIZAL CHALLENGES RETANA TO DUEL • WenceslaoRetana: • Used to attack the Filipinos, including Rizal in various newspapers in Madrid • He wrote that the family and friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands • Rizal was insulted and challenged him to a duel • Retana apologized in the newspapers for he believed that discretion is better part of valor • Because of the incident, Retana developed a deep admiration for Jose • Retana wrote Jose’s biography and martyrdom
INFIDELITY OF LEONOR RIVERA • One night he and some friends attended a play at TeatroApolo • The loss of the locket proved to be a bad omen • Rizal received a letter from Leonor, announcing: • her coming marriage to an Englishman
RIZAL-DEL PILAR RIVALRY • Jose’s idealism: • was not shared by others who loved wine, women, and cards • They resented Jose’s interference in their private lives • Filipinos decided that a leader called “Responsable” be voted • to direct the affairs of the Filipino community and to determine the editorial policy of the La Solidaridad • Del Pilar opposed the proposition • periodical be placed under the control of the Responsableon the ground that it was a private enterprise
RIZAL ABDICATES HIS LEADERSHIP • The Filipinos were divided into two hostile camps: • the Rizalistas and the Pilaristas • Jose obtained the necessary 2/3 vote and • became the Responsable • But Jose graciously declined the coveted position • than be the cause of disunity and bitterness among his countrymen
ROMANCE WITH NELLIE BOUSTEAD • Jose proposed marriage to Nellie (rebound love from Leonor) • Rizal’s marriage proposal failed for two reasons: • He refused to give up his catholic faith and be converted to Protestantism, as Nelly demanded • Nelly’s mother did not like Rizal as son-in-law
RIZAL STOPPED WRITING FOR LA SOLIDARIDAD • Simultaneous with his retirement from the Propaganda Movement • Rizal ceased writing articles for La Solidaridad • Del Pilar himself realized: • the need for Rizal’s collaboration in both the Propaganda Movement and in the La Solidaridad newspaper • Jose’s reply to del Pilar: • Rizal denied any resentment • He considered it very important to the party that there be unity in the work • More time to work on his novel (completed in Biarritz) • He wanted other Filipinos to work also