The Dynamics of Mass Communication Seventh Edition Joseph R. Dominick Part 3 The Electronic Media Chapter 9 Motion Pictures Motion pictures and TV “work” because of two quirks of the human perceptual system: the phi phenomenon persistence of vision History of the Motion Picture
Joseph R. Dominick
The Electronic Media
the phi phenomenon
persistence of visionHistory of the Motion Picture
Like radio, movie profits were first expected though sale of hardware, not the software.
In 1896 Edison realized his error and developed a mass projection device he calls the Vitascope.Edison and Early Experiments
First movies are filmed with a stationery camera, much like watching a stage production.
The Great Train Robbery is the first film to use roving camera angles and film editing techniques.
New 50-90 seat theaters, called Nickelodeons, meet rising demand for story-based films, charging 5 cents admission.The Nickelodeons
In 1910s, top film firms form the Motion Picture Patents Company to stop competitors; the move backfires as independent producers move to Hollywood. The MPPC is dead by 1917.Early Films and Birth of the MPPC
Early stars join to form United Artists Studio.
Public demands more comfortable and elaborate theaters in order to sit through longer filmsThe Star System
Believing that TV would hurt profits, the film industry tries to protect itself with several measures:
. attendance levels out; ticket prices, profits higher
. Pay Per View, video/DVD rentals eclipse box office as a film’s primary revenue source
. more theater “screens” than ever, newer ones boast stadium seating and digital sound
. 7 firms dominate industry: Sony, Disney, Warner Brothers, Fox, MGM, Universal, and Paramount
Though still in its infancy, digital film technology promises to make significant industry-wide changes, among them:
Technically possible, but in the near future people won’t have bandwidth power to make it practical.
Doubtful. Time consuming, little money savings, hard-disk storage limitations, big legal hurdles.
As of 2000, the top seven studios and owners were: