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World War I

World War I

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World War I

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  1. World War I Death, Destruction, Displacement and the Triumph of the Nation-State

  2. A Century of Conflict • Russian wars 1806-1812 • Greek War of Independence 1821 • Turko-Russian War 1828-1829 • Second Turko-Russian War 1877-1878 • The Balkan Wars 1912-1913 • The First World War 1914-1917 • The War of Independence 1917-1922

  3. The theater of war

  4. The Central Powers

  5. The Entente Powers

  6. MORE ALLIES JOIN IN ….

  7. The War in the Middle East: The Ottomans fighting on 4 fronts

  8. A “Civilian” War M O B I L I Z A T I O N

  9. DEATH AND DESTRUCTION

  10. FRENCH LOSSES Total pop: 39.6 mil. Military: 1,397,800 Civilian: 300,000 = 1,697,800 + 4,266,000 military personnel wounded OTTOMAN LOSSES Total pop: 21.3 mil. Military: 800,000 Civilian: 4,200,000 = 5,000,000 + 4,247,143 military personnel wounded CIVILIAN AND MILITARY LOSSES Total: 9.7 m military + 10 m civilian = 40 million deaths

  11. Paris 1919: The Big Four

  12. The Ideals of Self Determination A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.

  13. The Contest for Macedonia Greek claims: HISTORY In classical times, Greece and Macedonia had a shared history • Under Philip and Alexander the Great, Macedonia part of Greece • Despite language difference, religious difference, Macedonians are “Greek in their hearts”

  14. Problems with using Alexander’s Empire as criteria of “Greek” identity: I: Iran, Egypt, India, Afghanistan……. Where does it end? II. Persians could claim the same territory? III. The problem remains: how to define a “people”??

  15. To the victors, the spoils: sharing out the Ottoman Empire

  16. The Bulgarian Claim Macedonians closer to Bulgarian Church than Greek Church - not given option for independent Mac Ch. - religious affinity, regardless of language Everyone in region is Bulgarian if they are not Greek or Turkish. Greek and Turks exist only where those “people” are in the majority. All slavic speaking Macedonians are Bulgarians.

  17. The Serbian Claim Regardless of linguistic and religious differences, all Christians in region are Serbs.

  18. Bulgarian stats 499,000 Turks 1,181,000 Bulgars 229,000 Greeks 1,000 Serbs Greek stats 634,000 Turks 332,000 Bulgars 653,000 Greeks No serbs Bulgarian, Serbian and Greek stats Serbian stats 231,000 Turks; 57,000 Bulgars; 201,000 Greeks 2,048,000 Serbs How to reconcile these differences? Who is a Macedonian?

  19. The Treaty of Sevres

  20. Religious variety in 1912 Anatolia 80% Muslim Izmir 50% Muslim 34% Greek 3% Armenian 13% other Religious variety in 1922 Anatolia 98% Muslim Izmir 100% Muslim (approximate stats only) Nationalism and Its Discontents: Homogenization

  21. The Arab Middle East: the Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916

  22. The Mandates What is a mandate?? Mandates are territories “inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world.” France and Britain promise to assist the mandates “until such a time as they are able to stand alone.”

  23. questions: How were states’ borders chosen? What was promised by Mandate powers? What happened to the principle of self-determination? What about national identity? How to create a nation-state? Transjordan, Syria, Iraq, Palestine

  24. Why does it matter? • Origins matter • historical memory matters • Colonialism’s impact STILL matters • Disrespect, duplicity, domination are not easily forgotten……

  25. The Husayn-MacMahon Correspondence, 1915 Context: World War I : seeking advantages British vs Ottomans Ottoman prestige and Islamic credentials Sharif Husayn of Mecca as a counterweight From same family as the Prophet Guardian of Holy Shrines Arab

  26. What was the deal? Sharif Husayn would….. • Come out against the Ottoman Empire • Son would lead “Arab Revolt” 1916 to destabilize OE and create impetus for larger Arab revolts • Give England preferential economic contracts in a future country

  27. In return… The British would: • Recognize Sharif Husayn as head of dynasty • Assure Sharif Husayn of a new country and provide international recognition “England to approve of the proclamation of an Arab Khalifate of Islam”

  28. What actually was promised? McMahon (Oct 24, 1915) {with the exception of lands claimed by the French}…Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs in all the regions within the limits demanded by the Sherif of Mecca….

  29. From Sharif Husayn (Jan 1, 1916) …Your expression “we do not want to push you to any hasty action which might jeopardise the success of your aim” does not need any more explanation except what we may ask for, when necessary, such as arms, ammunition, etc….

  30. The Balfour Declaration November 1917 His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country…

  31. Anglo-French Declaration November 1918 The object aimed at by France and Great Britain…is the complete and definite emancipation of the peoples so long oppressed by the Turks and the establishment of national governments and administrations deriving their authority from the initiative and free choice of the indigenous populations…..

  32. Did the British make incompatible promises? Was Colonialism simply masquerading as “self determination?”