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The Cold War. The Cold War. Containment Mutually Assured Destruction Korean War, 1950-1953 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Afghanistan, 1979-1989 Mikhail Gorbachev. The Kitchen Debates, 1959. The First Phase, 1947-1953. George Kennan’s “Long Telegram” and the policy of containment

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the cold war
The Cold War
  • Containment
  • Mutually Assured Destruction
  • Korean War, 1950-1953
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  • Afghanistan, 1979-1989
  • Mikhail Gorbachev

The Kitchen Debates, 1959

the first phase 1947 1953
The First Phase, 1947-1953
  • George Kennan’s “Long Telegram” and the policy of containment
  • “Lessons” of World War II
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Creation of NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • Korean War, 1950-1953

US and Soviet soldiers meet on

the Elbe, April, 1945

the new superpowers
US

Capitalist System

Democratic Ideals

Russian support for Communist International

Russia/USSR

Communism

Authoritarian Politics

US Intervention in Russian Civil War

US failure to help Republicans in Spanish Civil War

The New Superpowers
recent problems a bipolar world
US

Russian refusal to demobilize

Russian treatment of Poland, Eastern Europe - The Iron Curtain

Chinese Civil War

1949 Russian explosion of A-Bomb

Espionage

USSR

US delay in invading France

Truman Doctrine of 1947

Containment

US nuclear supremacy

US technological advantages

NATO, Marshall Plan

Recent Problems:A Bipolar World
slide8

Nuclear Weapons

  • Technology
  • Threat of nuclear weapons
  • Deterrence and MAD
  • Arms control
  • Massive retaliation
slide10

June 1950

US dilemma: how to respond to a Communist invasion of Korea without starting World War III?

“Korea is outside the United States sphere of influence. We have no vital interests there” - American Secretary of State Dean Acheson, 1949.

slide11

The UN

Advance

slide13

Stalemate!!!

  • “We have won an armistice on a single battleground - not peace in the world. We may not now relax our guard nor cease our quest” - President Eisenhower, 1953.
new us defense policies
New US Defense Policies
  • 1950: NSC 68 recommended tripling defense budget
  • 1952: US introduced peacetime conscription
  • 1953: US builds first H-bomb
  • 1950-1953: US sends more military personnel to Europe than to Asia
  • 1955: (West) Germany rearmed

The King gets drafted, 1958

new soviet policies
New Soviet Policies
  • Funding for “Wars of Liberation”
  • Launching of Sputnik, 1957
  • Creation of Berlin Wall, 1961
  • Imposed tight controls on Eastern Europe
  • Built links to Castro in Cuba and elsewhere in Latin America
phase two 1953 1979
Phase Two: 1953-1979
  • USSR and USA want to avoid nuclear war
  • So they fight “proxy” wars in the Third World
  • Connections to wars of anticolonialism
  • Few direct confrontations

Soviet advisors in Vietnam, 1966

cuban missile crisis 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • USSR attempted to place long-range nuclear missiles in Cuba
  • JFK ordered a naval blockade of Cuba
  • US went to highest alert level ever
  • Compromise reached, hot line established between White House and Kremlin
  • Tensions high
arab israeli wars
Arab-Israeli Wars
  • US supported Israel
  • USSR supported Arabs
  • Wars in 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982
  • Both sides get to “field test” their equipment
  • US and USSR fuel wars, but also stop them

Israeli pilots in 1973 flying the American-made F-4 Phantom

the cold war in the third world
The Cold War in the Third World
  • Building of US and Soviet military bases worldwide
  • US and USSR funding of wars
  • Afghanistan, 1979
  • India and the “non-aligned” movement
  • China and the Cultural Revolution

US supported mujahedeen rebel in Afghanistan. It seemed like a good idea at the time

final phase 1980 1991
Final Phase, 1980-1991
  • Reagan and “evil empire” rhetoric
  • SDI and massive US military spending
  • Alliances with Saudi Arabia to reduce USSR oil values, bring Arab states into US alliances
  • Defeat USSR with economic effort, not direct military confrontation

Building tight US – Saudi links also seemed like a good idea at the time

soviet initiatives
Soviet Initiatives
  • Perestroika (restructuring) and Glasnost (openness)
  • USSR spending 50% of its GDP on defense
  • Sign bipartisan disarmament agreements
  • Seek to use the US as a partner not an enemy
  • Dismantle Warsaw Pact, remove troops from Eastern Europe

“I was talking about another time and another era” – Reagan when asked about his “evil empire” statement of 1982