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The Harlem Renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance

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The Harlem Renaissance

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  1. The Harlem Renaissance Mr. Oppel AP US History

  2. “The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America”

  3. I. Introduction • A. Definition • Generic term • describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement • 1920s and 30s

  4. B. Location New York City

  5. Manhattan Island Harlem Central Park WTC

  6. C. European Origins • 1. European Art • French artists study West African sculpture • Popularize artistic primitivism • Spontaneous • Instinctive

  7. Amedeo Modigliani

  8. Pablo Picasso • Les Demoiselles d'Avignon • 1907 • African masks

  9. 2. European Music • Incorporate syncopation from ragtime • Later reintroduced to jazz

  10. Sousa on Tour in Europe • 1893 Chicago World’s Fair • touring repertoire began to include early ragtime cakewalks and syncopated songs

  11. introduced ragtime to Europe • Performances • Paris Exposition • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany

  12. Incorporate American jazz • Claude DeBussy • Children’s Corner, 1906-8 • Igor Stravinsky • Le Sacre duprintemps, 1913 • Eric Satie • Parade, 1917

  13. Black jazz bands toured Europe during WWI

  14. D. American influences • Southern Counter- Reconstruction • Black Codes • Jim Crow laws

  15. WWI Experience in Europe • Harlem Hellfighters

  16. The Great Migration & Urbanization

  17. The Red Scare • The NEW YORK TIMES lamented the new black militancy: • "There had been no trouble with the Negro before the war when most admitted the superiority of the white race."

  18. Claude McKayIf We must Die, 1919 • If we must die, let it not be like hogsHunted and penned in an inglorious spot,While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,Making their mock at our accursed lot.If we must die, O let us nobly die,So that our precious blood may not be shedIn vain; then even the monsters we defyShall be constrained to honor us though dead!O kinsmen we must meet the common foe!Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!What though before us lies the open grave?Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!

  19. II. Harlem Renaissance • A. Activists • B. Artists & Photographers • C. Writers • D. Composers, Musicians, Actors & Singers

  20. Prognostications • “The nation was on the verge of a ‘renaissance of American Negro literature’” W.E.B. DuBois NAACP’s Crisis, 1920

  21. “America was ‘on the edge, if not already in the midst of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance’” New York Herald Tribune, 1925

  22. A. Activists

  23. Marcus Garvey1887-1940 • Jamaican • “Back to Africa” movement • Universal Negro Improvement Association

  24. Uniform of the “Provisional President of Africa” • Opened office in Harlem in 1917

  25. Black Star steamship line • Raised money to help blacks emigrate to Africa

  26. Liberia feared he was a revolutionary and pulled away its support • Jailed & deported to Jamaica, 1923

  27. African Folklore & Africanism W.E.B. DuBois Alain Locke

  28. B. Artists & Photographers • Aaron Douglas • Jacob Lawrence • LM Jones • Arthur J. Motley, Jr. • James Van Der Zee

  29. Aaron Douglas • Painted murals • Illustrated The Crisis and Opportunity • taught art at Fisk University

  30. Aaron Douglas Aspects of Negro Life, 1934

  31. Into Bondage, 1936

  32. L.M. Jones The Ascent of Ethiopia, 1932

  33. Arthur J. Motley, Jr. • 1891 – 1981 • Art Institute of Chicago • Realistic, urban subjects, jazz, & abstract painting

  34. Cocktails, 1926

  35. Motley • Blues, 1929

  36. James Van Der Zee • 1886 – 1983 • photographer • celebrated the black middle class • brought dignity • reshaped the image of blackness

  37. "A Couple Wearing Raccoon Coats With a Cadillac, Taken on West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932

  38. Alpha Phi Alpha Basketball Team, 1926 Alpha Phi Basketball Team, 1926

  39. Countee Cullen Langston Hughes Alain Locke Claude McKay Wallace Thurman Jeane Toomer Walter White Jessie Fauset Zora Neale Hurston Nella Larsen C. Writers

  40. Many establishment blacks “wanted black writers to promote positive images” The writers themselves wanted to show realism of life in Harlem purpose of writing?