FIRST REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY • First rules by Virginia Company. • Growth led to complaints about rules • 1619 company agreed to let colonists have a say • Each town sent two Burgesses (representatives) to an assembly • July 30th First meeting held. • 1624 – Because the company was going bad the King took over and made Jamestown the first Royal Colony – England making the $$$$$.
Religious Motivation • Next group of colonists from England traveled for Religious reasons • King Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and starts Anglican Church. • Catholic Dissenters (disagreed with Anglicans and still followed Pope) were persecuted • Some Protestants (not the same as Anglican) wanted to change/ reform the Anglicans views (Puritans). Others wanted to leave and set up their own churches (Separatists). • Separatists first went to Netherlands but didn’t like their kids losing English “values”.
PLYMOUTH COLONY They made a deal with Virginia Company – go there, settle and practice religion their way. • Separatists called themselves – PILGRIMS • Mayflower – ship that brought them in 1620. Only 35 of 102 people were Pilgrims – others were called “strangers”. Eventually all became called Pilgrims because in Plymouth the Pilgrims set the rules. • HOW PLYMOUTH? They were headed for Virginia but missed & landed in Cape Cod. Winter approaching they decided to stay there. • Leader William Bradford. • Because they missed Virginia they were not governed by its laws. • They governed themselves according to their own laws: the MAYFLOWER COMPACT
FIRST WINTER and SURVIVAL • First winter 50% died – no food, disease and cold. • Springtime They befriended Natives who taught them to Farm, hunt and fish. • Pilgrims made a treaty in March 1621 with the local Natives – Wampanog Tribe (Massasoit was their leader)
NEW ENGLAND COLONIES GROW • 1625 Charles I takes throne of England • Begins more persecution of Puritans • 1629 a group of them form Massachusetts Bay Company to set up a society based on the bible • John Winthrop was their Governor • 1630 about 900 Puritans come to Mass. Bay and settle in the area we know as Boston. • During the decade approximately 15,000 Puritans go to Mass. (GREAT MIGRATION) • First laws made by Winthrop and his assistants who were chosen by stockholders (General court) but in 1634 people demanded more say. • CHANGE WAS MADE – General Court became an elected Assembly. • Adult males could vote for Governor and General Court. Eventually you also had to be a land owner. • PURITANS DID NOT TOLERATE OTHER RELIGIOUS VIEWS…..as a result additional New England Colonies were formed.
CONNECTICUT • South of Mass – Good Farmland – In 1630’s colonists began to move and settle this area (Connecticut River Valley) • Thomas Hooker in 1636 – Not Happy with Puritan leaders so he took a group and went to Connecticut area – Founded Hartford • 1639 Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield form a colony • FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT – plan of government for Connecticut – First written Constitution in America.
RHODE ISLAND • Rhode Island settled by those who were forced from Mass. – First one was Roger Williams because he preached differently and did not like taking land from Natives. He was banished in 1635. • Rhode Island tolerated religious differences so many dissenters came here. All faiths could worship freely Christians and Jews alike. • 1638 a different group goes north and forms New Hampshire (Exeter). It was not fully independent from Mass until 1679.
Issues With The Natives • Generally, initial relationships with Natives were good. Virginia dealt with the Powhatan Confederacy. New England deals with Wampanoag, Narragansett and others. • Problems began because Colonists would move onto Native Lands without consent. • 1636 war with Pequot and Conn. and Mass colonies. • 1675 New England vs. Wampanoag over land dispute (Called King Phillips war because settlers referred to the Wampanoag chief as King Phillip) • New England Colonists won and basically the Natives had no more power freeing the settlers to move where they wanted.
New Netherlands • 1621 the Dutch West Indies Company is established by Dutch Merchants • All along the Hudson river area and on Manhattan Island (New Amsterdam) • The Company had bought the island from the Natives in 1626. • Settlers came here from Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Finland. • Bring 50 Settlers get a large estate. Estates ruled by Patroons. • English wanted the great shipping area. • 1664 Stuyvesant is the Governor of the Dutch Colony – English ships come to attack and he gives up as he is unprepared. • King Charles II gives the colony (Proprietary) to his brother (Duke of York) • Duke and his appointed council governed the colony. • Over the years population grew here – people wanted to have a representative gov’t. – 1691 the English gov’t. allows a legislature to be elected.
New Jersey • Duke of York gave land in South to John Berkeley and George Carteret. • They named it New Jersey • Offers of good land and good terms, religious freedom and representative gov’t. attracted people to the colony • It had no port/natural harbors so it did not make profits as expected so each man (Proprietor) sold his share to someone else. • By 1702 the area (NJ) transferred back to the Kings hands and became a royal Colony – Colonists still made local laws.
Pennsylvania • 1680 William Penn gets land from King as repayment of loan debt. • Penn was a Quaker (Protestant dissenter) • Quakers believed in Toleration and Penn established the colony as a “Holy Experiment” to practice these new Quaker ideals. • Penn also believed the land belonged to the Natives and was one of the first to negotiate a treaty to buy the land from them. (1682) • He marketed the colony all over Europe (1683) • 1701 – “ Charter of Liberties” Penn gave the colonists the right to have a legislative assembly
Delaware • 1704 – Lower county areas of Pennsylvania formed their own separate legislature (Pursuant the “Charter of Privileges”) and functioned as their own colony - Delaware – supervised by the PA Governor.
Maryland • Maryland – Safe Haven for Catholics established by George Calvert in 1632 when he got charter from Charles I. • Farmed Tobacco and then added other crops to protect themselves. • Land offers made to encourage settlers – workers were imported Servants and slaves. • 1649 – Act of toleration established to protect colony from becoming Protestant. But it failed as in 1692 the Protestant controlled assembly makes the colony Anglican just like England.
Virginia Grows • 1640’s VA governor makes a deal with natives to avoid settlement conflicts. It limits settler’s ability to move Westward. • Nathaniel Bacon lived West and didn’t like gov’t mostly controlled by Easterners. Did not like the closing of the Western areas. • 1676 – Bacon leads Westerners in rebellion. Goes to Jamestown to eliminate Berkeley. • Bacon got sick and Died. England retook control of the area.
The Carolinas • 1663 King Charles Creates Carolina • 1680 town of Charles Town (Charleston) is established. • John Locke wrote a Constitution. • Northern part mostly tobacco and forest products. • Southern part more prosperous –fertile soil and a good Harbor • Rice &Indigo (Blue Dye) • 1708 over half population was slaves. • 1729 North and South Carolina.
Georgia • Established for debtors and poor people to get a fresh start in 1733 • Oglethorpe received a charter. • protect colonies from Spanish in the South. • 1st town Savannah • Colony had small farms, BUT no Slavery, Catholics or Rum (Banned). • Not a lot of debtors came but rather lots of poor people from other countries. Most non populated British Colony of the 13. • Settlers began to complain about Oglethorpe’s leadership and rules. (Non Slavery, size of land amounts, etc.) • He begins to lift some rules – rum and slaves OK – larger plots of land OK • 1751 – he gives up and gives the colony back to the King
Charter Colonies • Connecticut • Rhode Island • Started by a group of people with a charter • Colonists elected governors and members of both houses
Proprietary Colonies • Delaware • Maryland • Pennsylvania • Proprietors appointed governor and upper house
Royal Colonies • Georgia • Massachusetts • New Hampshire • New Jersey • North Carolina • South Carolina • Virginia • Ruled directly by Britain
New England • Urban • Town life centered around meeting house and common • Subsistence Farming • Small Business • Industry (manufactured goods)
Middle Colonies • Larger farms • Cash crops • Trade • New York & Philadelphia • Lumber, mining, manufacturing, crafts • Heterogeneous
Southern Colonies • Tobacco & Rice • Little Industry • Slavery • Plantations • Small farmers
Slavery • Main reason for economic success in Southern colonies • Most lived on plantations • Families torn apart • Some bought freedom
Population Growth • 1607 – 1775: ~ million people immigrate into New England • Larger families • Healthier • Less disease • More food