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Personality . Chapter 14. Personality. Pattern of feeling, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another Psychologists describe personality characteristics and explain how personality develops Also try to predict how people will respond to life’s demands. Trait Approach.

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Chapter 14

  • Pattern of feeling, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another
  • Psychologists describe personality characteristics and explain how personality develops
  • Also try to predict how people will respond to life’s demands
trait approach
Trait Approach
  • Trait: aspect of personality that is relatively stable
  • Where do traits come from?
trait approach1
Trait Approach
  • Hippocrates
    • Humors: yellow bile, blood, phlegm, and black bile
    • Traits are a combination of different humors
  • Gordon Allport
    • Traits are building blocks of personality
    • Behavior is result of specific combination of traits
    • Traits are the predisposition to react in a specific way to a broad range of situation
    • Helped identify over 18,000 words to describe personality
trait approach2
Trait Approach
  • Hans Eysenck
    • Introversion vs. extroversion and emotional stability vs. instability and impulse control vs. psychotic
  • The first two factors create 4 combinations, related to the four basic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks:
    • Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad, gloomy
    • Choleric(extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered, irritable
    • Phlegmatic(introverted + stable): sluggish, calm
    • Sanguine(extroverted + stable): cheerful, hopeful









































five factor model
Five-factor model
  • Five basic personality factors
  • Suggests that people are born with their personality which matures
  • But personality is still influenced by culture
raymond cattell
Raymond Cattell
  • Two categories of traits
    • Surface traits: make up the visible areas of personality
    • Source traits: are the underlying characteristics of personality
  • 16 Personality Factors
    • Test identifying 16 personality factors (source traits)
  • Used factor analysis to discover the 16 personality factors
cattell s personality factors
Cattell’s Personality Factors
  • Warmth
  • Reasoning
  • Emotional Stability
  • Dominance
  • Liveliness
  • Rule-consciousness
  • Social Boldness
  • Sensitivity
  • Vigilance
  • Abstractedness
  • Privateness
  • Apprehension
  • Openness to change
  • Self-reliance
  • Perfectionism
  • Tension
  • Are personality traits set in stone or do they depend on the situation?
  • Can we change our traits?
    • Can we do it easily?
  • Are our traits formed at birth? Or are they influenced by the environment?
psychoanalytic approach
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • All people undergo inner struggles
  • Humans have biological drives that conflict with laws and social conventions
  • Psychological problems are rooted in the unconscious
sigmund freud
Sigmund Freud
  • Father of Psychoanalysis
  • Used psychoanalysis to explore unconscious
    • People talk about any ideas or memories that pop into their mind
  • Also used hypnosis and dream analysis
id ego and superego
Id, Ego, and superego
  • Id-basic drives
    • Wants immediate gratification
  • Ego-reason
    • Tries to satisfy the demands of id and the warnings of superego
    • Mediator, balance id and superego
  • Superego-moral sense/conscience
    • Wants to act in socially appropriate manner
stages of development

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

Stage Focus

Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth--

(0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing

Anal Toilet training; coping with demands for (18-36 months) control

Phallic Sexual identity; physical differences; (3-6 years) coping with incestuous sexual feelings

Latency Dormant sexual feelings

(6 to puberty)

Genital Maturation of sexual interests

(puberty on)

Stages of Development
  • Personality develops in stages
  • Children have conflicts at each stage
  • Batman/Bruce Wayne
  • What happened in his childhood?
  • Why is this trauma important?
  • How did this impact him?
  • How did he handle it well?
  • How did he handle it poorly?
  • Is he more Batman or Bruce Wayne?
  • Why is his bat phobia important?
  • What is the impact of his relationship to his parents?
defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression
  • Rationalization
  • Displacement
  • Regression
  • Projection
  • Reaction Formation
  • Denial
  • Sublimation
psychoanalytic approach1
Psychoanalytic Approach
  • Carl Jung
    • Collective unconscious-store of shared human concepts
    • Archetypes-basic concepts in collective unconscious
      • Hero, wise old man, trickster, etc.
  • Alfred Adler
    • Inferiority complex-feelings of inadequacy and insecurity
  • Erik Erikson
    • Eight stages of development
      • Named after traits developed during each stage
myers briggs test
Myers-Briggs Test
  • Started as test during WWII to help women decide what job type would fit their personality
  • Based on Jung’s four principal psychological functions:
    • Sensation, Intuition, Feeling, Thinking
  • Test has four pairs
    • Extraversion-Introversion
    • Sensing-Intuition
    • Thinking-Feeling
    • Judging-Perception
learning approach
Learning Approach
  • Behaviorism
    • John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner
    • Outside forces (not traits or inner conflict) shape preferences and behavior
    • Look at behavior instead of mind
    • Environment shapes peoples wants
    • Socialization-people learn what is acceptable and desired in their culture and adopt that as part of their personality
stanford prison experiment
Stanford prison experiment
  • Conducted by Philip Zimbardo; 1971
  • 24 college students
  • Planned 2 week experiment, ended after 6 days
  • Psychological effects of being a prison guard or prisoner
  • Goal was to prove that inherent personality traits are the source of abusive behavior in prisons
  • Conclusion-the situation rather than personality caused the behaviors
learning approach1
Learning Approach
  • Social-Learning Theory
    • People act to influence the environment
    • Learning through observation
    • Internal Factors:
      • Skills
      • Values
      • Goals
      • Expectations
      • Self-efficacy expectations
humanistic approach
Humanistic Approach
  • Abraham Maslow
    • Search for self-actualization
    • Takes risks to reach self-actualization
humanistic approach1
Humanistic Approach
  • Carl Rogers
    • Self-Theory
      • People shape their personality through free choice and action
    • Self-Concept
      • Viewing yourself as an individual
    • Congruence-consistency between self-concept and experiences
  • Cannot live fully according to the wishes of others and remain true to ourselves
sociocultural approach
Sociocultural Approach
  • Individualism vs. Collectivism
    • Individualists-identify self based on personal identity
    • Collectivists-identify self based on group they belong to
    • Helps account for personality differences between individualistic Western nations and collectivist nations elsewhere
sociocultural approach1
Sociocultural Approach
  • Acculturation
    • Process of adapting to a new culture
    • Culture influences personality
personality tests
Personality Tests
  • Standardization-test administered and scored the same way every time
  • Reliability-measure of consistency
  • Validity-extent that a test measures what it is supposed to
  • Objective test-has standardized set of items in form of questionnaire
  • Projective tests-open-ended questions with no specified answers
rorschach ink blots projective test
Rorschach Ink Blots (projective test)

Common responses: bat, butterfly, moth

This is card 1 of 10

Reveals clues as to how people respond to new and stressful tasks

rorschach ink blots projective test1
Rorschach Ink Blots (projective test)

Common responses: human heads/faces

This is card 7 of 10

Card is associated with femininity;

Difficulty responding may relate to conflict with female figures in life

questions to ask
Questions to ask
  • Is the test based on research?
  • Who wrote the test?
  • Why was the test created?
    • Job hiring, psychological problems, therapy, entertainment?
  • Do the questions relate to what is being measured?
  • Do the results describe personality?
  • Would people answer the questions falsely?
good personality tests
Good personality tests
  • Myers-Briggs: MBTI
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI
  • 16 Personality Factors: 16 PF Questionnaire
  • Big Five: Revised NEO Personality Inventory

Bad personality tests