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European Imperialism in Asia: India, China, and Japan. 2012. Quiz. Describe the life of an African under European rule. How were they treated? Etc. Access to Asia and East Africa. Looking for faster shipping routes between E. Africa, Asia, and Europe Cape of Good Hope trip too long

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European Imperialism in Asia: India, China, and Japan

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Describe the life of an African under European rule. How were they treated? Etc.

access to asia and east africa
Access to Asia and East Africa
  • Looking for faster shipping routes between E. Africa, Asia, and Europe
  • Cape of Good Hope trip too long
  • Solution:
    • Suez Canal
  • History: Egypt’s leader Isma’il supported construction through Isthmus of Suez to connect RED SEA and MEDITERRANEAN SEA
  • French financed it
  • Opened 1869
  • Cost of canal bankrupted Egypt so Britain took control in 1882
britain and india
Britain and India
  • India was Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown”
  • British interest in India began in the 1600s with the British East India company
  • As the Mogul Empire fell the British established more control
  • From 1757 to 1858 the British East India Company ruled India
british east india company and sepoys
British East India Company and Sepoys
  • The company had its own army staffed by sepoys , or Indian soldiers
  • Issues?
india under british control
India under British Control
  • The British valued India as a market for the finished products of the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s
    • Restrictions to prevent Indian economy from operating on own
  • Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and opium were important agricultural products
    • Railroads linked towns and mines/farms to ports to facilitate trade and the sale of goods to Indians
sepoy mutiny india
Sepoy Mutiny (India)
  • Increased economic problems for Indians
  • Sepoys get word that gun cartridges they would get were greased with pork and beef fat. Soldiers had to bite off ends…
    • Against Hindu religion and Islam
  • British East India Company jailed soldiers who wouldn’t accept cartridges
    • Sepoys rebelled
    • Captured many northern areas
    • British gov’t troops sent
sepoy mutiny outcome india
Sepoy Mutiny Outcome (India)
  • Britain takes direct command of India in 1858
    • “It is this awareness of the natural superiority of the European which has won for us India. However well educated and clever a native may be, and however brave he may prove himself, I believe that no rank we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British officer” –Lord Kitchener
  • Eventually movements for independence from Britain emerge
    • Notable leaders: Mohandas Gandhi
      • Civil disobedience: disregard laws that you believe are unmoral and be prepared for jail but do not use violence inspires MLK Jr.
  • Freedom 1947

“Complete civil disobedience is rebellion without the element of violence in it. An out and out civil resister simply ignores the authority of the state. He becomes an outlaw claiming to disregard every unmoral state law…In doing all this he never uses force and never resists force when it is used against him. In fact, he invites imprisonment and other uses of force.”

-Mohandas Gandhi

According to the passage above, which is true of civil resisters?

  • They uphold the authority of the state.
  • They disregard laws they think are unfair.
  • They try to avoid imprisonment.
  • They use hate and violence to get what they want.
southeast asia imperialism
Southeast Asia: Imperialism
  • French, Dutch, British, and eventually the USA will attempt to colonize Southeast Asia for resources and power
china resists outside influence
China Resists Outside influence
  • China proud of culture and could keep West out because they were self-sufficient
  • Little trade with West
  • Would only let Westerners trade in Guangzhou meaning China exported more than they imported
  • Europeans were determined to find a product China wanted so they could get more resources out of them….
opium and china
Opium and China
  • Chinese doctors used it for pain for 100s of years
  • British start smuggling in more for non-medicinal use
  • By 1835 12MILLION people were addicted
  • “By what right do the British merchants use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? … I have heard that smoking opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries.” –Lin Zexu
opium war
Opium War
  • 1839 The Chinese go to war with Britain but ships are no match for steam-powered gunboats of British
  • 1842- Treaty of Nanjing –peace treaty ending Opium War
    • Gives Hong Kong to British
    • Gives foreign citizens extraterritorial rightsmeaning foreigners not subject to Chinese law in 5 port cities
china s other problems
China’s other problems

Internal Problems

  • Famine: increased population, decreased food supply…
    • Some land used for opium production instead of food
  • Peasant unrest
      • Lead to……
  • Taiping Rebellion: “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”
      • Hong Xiuquan leads rebellion to create utopian community by conquering southern provinces and Nanjing
      • Fails because of infighting and outside attacks
      • 20 million die

Hong Xiuquan

  • Dowager Empress Cixi(tsoo-shee)
    • Implements updates to education, diplomacy, military
    • Steam power, rifles, ammunition must industrialize to be successful
outside influence in china
Outside influence in China
  • Japan and Western powers take instability in China as chance to gain foothold
  • European spheres of influence
  • 1899 USA declares Open Door Policy: proposes that China’s doors be open to merchants of all nations but cannot colonize


  • Chinese nationalism rises
    • Send diplomats to tour world
    • Come back with suggestions to restructure government
  • Managed to stay relatively isolated from the West until 1800s
  • West tries to convince them to open ports but Japan refuses
  • 1853 US Commodore Matthew Perry took four huge black wooden steam-powered ships and anchored them in Tokyo Harbor
    • Letter from Fillmore
    • Promise
    • 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa: opened some ports to the west; extraterritorial rights
  • Japanese angry at shogun
    • Emperor takes control 1867 Meiji era
      • Idea: Modernize or be invaded
        • Powerful military (Germany), navy (Britain), education (USA), industrialization (WEST)


japanese imperialism
Japanese Imperialism
  • Japan’s strength increases so they need more resources
  • Japan attacks Korea forcing trade in 3 ports
    • Makes China mad so both agree hands-off 1885
  • 1894 China breaks agreement so Japan sends troops to fight Chinese in Korea Sino-Japanese War
    • 1895 peace treaty
japanese imperialism1
Japanese Imperialism
  • Japan sets sights on Manchuria
    • 1903 Japan tells Russia that they will recognize Russia’s rights to Manchuria if they will stay out of Korea but Russia says no
    • 1904 Japan launches surprise attack on Russian ships  Russo-Japanese War
      • T. Roosevelt brokers peace deal and Japan controls Manchuria and Korea