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Islam. By: Jackie Nietert & Josh Oleksiak. Video about Islam. Practiced Originally. Shahadah Basic confession of faith Said many times daily “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the prophet of Allah” 2 nd part sums up the Muslim principle of revelation

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  1. Islam By:Jackie Nietert & Josh Oleksiak

  2. Video about Islam

  3. Practiced Originally • Shahadah • Basic confession of faith • Said many times daily • “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the prophet of Allah” • 2nd part sums up the Muslim principle of revelation • Confess Muhammad is prophet of Allah, confess Quran verses are word of Allah

  4. Practiced Originally • Salat • Second pillar of Islam • Pray five times a day, at daybreak, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and before bed • Made up of prescribed ritual washings and portions of the Quran to be recited in Arabic • 1st surah is always recited • Every Friday must perform Salat in communal setting with imam (teacher)

  5. Practiced Originally • Zakat • Third pillar • Almsgiving • Islam regards all wealth as belonging to god • Every Muslim has to give 2 and a half percent of his wealth • Zakat means “sweetening”

  6. Practiced Originally • Sawm • Fourth pillar • Fasting • Fast during month of Ramadan • Ramadan is the month in which Muhammad obtained his 1st revelation • Every adult Muslim has to abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse dawn to sunset for entire month • Fasting is done to increase self-discipline and for the praise of Allah

  7. Practiced Originally • Hajj • Fifth pillar • Pilgrimage to Mecca • During the first to twelfth days of the last month of the year • Only if you have the money to make trip, and have paid Zakat • Pilgrimage includes: visiting the great mosque, kissing the Black Stone, and circling the Kabah seven times • Purpose is to strengthen a Muslim’s faith

  8. Original Beliefs • Muhammad • Preached that there is only one god • Claimed Islam is the only true religion • Declared himself a prophet and messenger of God • Claimed that his revelations were the eternal, unalterable, and perfect word of god

  9. Texts of Islam • Quran • Final recordings of Muhammad’s revelations from the Angel Gabriel • Written in 650 A.D. • In perfect Arabic • Contains 114 chapter, arranged from longest to shortest in length

  10. Texts of Islam • Hadith • Means “story; tradition” • Sayings and actions of Muhammad • Also actions and sayings of his close followers • When the Quran does not give guidance for a specific situation, the Hadith is used

  11. Texts of Islam • Shariah • Law of Islam • Combines Quran, Hadith, and other Islamic laws and codes of ethics • In countries where Islam is dominant, Shariah is the governing law • Allows no separation from the sacred and the worldly

  12. Major Turning Point • Major turning point: • Sunni Shia split

  13. Sunni Shia Split • Division goes back to after Muhammad died • Disagreement over who should succeed Muhammad • Shia support Ali and say that all caliphs need to be descendants of Muhammad • Sunni believe that new caliphs just need to follow the sunnah

  14. Sunni • Largest group of Muslims • Makes up 85% of all Muslims • Follow approved path of Muhammad • Recognize first four caliphs • Attribute no special religious function to descendants of Muhammad • Dominant in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Pakistan

  15. Shia • Makes up 15% of Muslims • Support Ali as first caliph • Says every caliph after Ali needs to be descendant of Muhammad • Recognize only exceptional Islam teachers as Imams • Dominant Muslim group in Iran, Iraq, and parts of Africa

  16. Leaders of Islam • First caliph Abu Bakr • Said there was no distinction between Zakat and Salat • Collected and wrote down the verses of the Quran • Died August 23, 634 A.D. • Was buried next to Muhammad

  17. Leaders of Islam • Second caliph Umar • At first was not Islamic, he beat his sister when he found out she was Islamic • Changed to Islam after reading the Quran • Would walk around Medina to see if anyone had problems • Prayed at a normal mosque, hard to distinguish him from commoners • Died in 24 A.H

  18. Leaders of Islam • Third caliph Uthman • Was friends with Abu Bakr, who brought him to Islam • Fasted every second of third day • Completed the Quran, and made many copies • Was killed by Jewish rebels while saying a Quran verse

  19. Leaders of Islam • Fourth caliph Alee • Cousin of Muhammad • Moved the Islamic capital to Iraq • Went hungry while being the leader of Islam • Very generous • Died on 40 A.H. by an assassin with a poisoned sword

  20. Consequences of Caliphs • 3 of the 4 caliphs were assassinated by rebels or people of another religion • Caused Jews and Magians to rebel within the caliphate • Performed a siege on Uthman’s house • Battle between Alee (fourth caliph) and Aaisah(Muhammad’s widow) • Kharijites claimed there should be no leader but Allah, attempted to kill all leaders, only succeeding in killing Alee

  21. Islam Spreads • After Muhammad died, the religion split into Sunni and Shia • When Uthman, the third caliph, got assassinated, it started a civil war • Between Ali and the Kharajites • Ended when Ali was murdered

  22. Islam Spreads • At the end of the 15th century, the Muslim world was different from the beginning • No single state could be identified • No longer a faith identified with one region • Became universal and more multinational

  23. Religion Today • Islamic resurgence in the 1970s • Islamic revolution in Iran • Opposition to the rule of the shah • Ali Shariati, a main opposition to the shah, died in 1978 of mysterious conditions • Wanted a new government like an Islamic Marxism

  24. Religion Today • In 1980s and 1990s, Islamic activist movements changed radically • Political Islam had become an important part of mainstream politics • Threat of Islamic groups in Algeria and Tunisia were that they could get the majority through democratic processes

  25. Religion Today • Current estimates by the Pew Forum are that there are 1.57 billion Muslims in the world • 1.1 million to 7 million of the Muslims live in the United States of America • About 23% of the world follows Islam

  26. Good view of Islam • People who use violence and terror in the name of Islam are hypocrites, criminals, and heretics • Contradict the teachings of Muhammad • Specific prohibition in Islamic law that bans killing by stealth

  27. Bad view of Islam • Islamic terrorists have destroyed cars, buildings, and planes • Muslim terrorists have murdered tens of thousands of men, women, and children • One half of all terrorists are Islamic • Muhammad said “kill any Jew that comes under your power” • Islamic history shows that as Muslims grew in power, their violence changed to outright warfare

  28. Bibliography • "The Crescent Star of Islam." Islam. Web. 5 Nov 2010. <http://www.mrdowling.com/605-islam.html>. • "Islam." LCMS. N.p., 2005. Web. 5 Nov 2010. <http://www.lcms.org/graphics/assets/media/CTCR/Islam%201207.pdf>. • "Muhammad." MidEastWeb (2007): n. pag. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/muhammad.htm>. • "Learn about Islam." Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.5min.com/Video/Learn-about-Islam-38365933>. • "Al-Quran." Islamic Esources. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.islamicesources.com/main/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=29&Itemid=183 • "Kaaba." Black Stone of Mecca. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.crystalinks.com/blackstone.html>. • "Black Stone." Black Stone of Mecca. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.crystalinks.com/blackstone.html>.

  29. Bibliography • "How We Pray." Salat. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://islaminfoz.blogspot.com/2009/09/salat.html>. • "Shahadah." The Correct Shahadah. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.qurandistribution.com/shahadah.shtml>. • "Zakat." Frequently Asked Questions About Sakat. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://almasshamim.blogspot.com/2010/08/frequently-asked-questions-about-zakat.html>. • "Al Quran Arabic - Urdu Translation." Al-Quran. Web. 8 Nov 2010. <http://www.islamicesources.com/main/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=29&Itemid=183>. • "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." n. pag. Web. 14 Nov 2010. <http://www.sunnahonline.com/ilm/seerah/0025.htm#The First Caliph, Abu Bakr (632-634 A.C.)>. • "Abu Bakr." The Holy Quran. Web. 15 Nov 2010. <http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0182-holy-quran.php>. • Wuthnow, Robert. "Islam." (1998): n. pag. Web. 15 Nov 2010. <http://www.cqpress.com/context/articles/epr_islam.html

  30. Bibliography • "Islam." About Islam (2010): n. pag. Web. 15 Nov 2010. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/islam.htm>. • Bhutto, Benazir. "Views on Islam." October 2002: n. pag. Web. 15 Nov 2010. <http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/politics/pg0066.html • "Muhammad, Islam, and Terrorism." 5 May 2001: n. pag. Web. 15 Nov 2010. <http://muhammadanism.org/Muhammad/Muhammad_Terrorism.htm

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