“Religion is the opium of the people” Karl Marx Religion Tony, Callum and Chris
Effects of Cultural Revolution • The Cultural Revolution was an attack on bourgeois values. • It created an onslaught of the priests and churches. • By the end of 1930 80% of churches closed • Lead to 1 in 40 churches open at the end of 1930’s.
What happened to religious faith • In Stalin’s Russia a small number of churches were kept open so that he could claim freedom of worship. • Although by the end of the 1930s only 2% of Orthodox churches were still operating.
Christians and Jews • January 1918, Decree on the separation of church and state- church cannot own land. • More than 8000 killed in anti- church campaign, including 28 bishops and 1215 priests. • In August 1919 Jewish properties, including synagogues, were seized and many Jewish communities were dissolved.
Reaction of the people • Many peasants were angered and believed that they had the right to pursue their own religious beliefs. • Although a few churches were kept open, it was not enough to satisfy the needs of the people.
How did religion change • Worship of Stalin was encouraged. • Communist’s focused on closing churches (Christianity) • Later in 1930’s the communists targeted the Muslim population • Closed down more than half the mosques • Militant Atheists were set up in 1924 to weaken religious faith.
Conclusion • Overall, Religion was repressed in Russia both under the Bolsheviks and under Stalin. • Did so by targeting each religion and banning their places of worship/ other restrictions • As a result, forced the population into being loyal to Stalin