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Reconstruction: Aftermath of Civil War. What now? . The Aftermath of the Civil War. This is a photograph taken after the Civil War in Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States. The Civil War * 1861-1865. Fought between the United States and the Confederate States of America

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the aftermath of the civil war
The Aftermath of the Civil War

This is a photograph taken after the Civil War in Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States

the civil war 1861 1865
The Civil War * 1861-1865
  • Fought between the United States and the Confederate States of America
  • The United States defeated the Confederate States of America
  • Caused primarily over issue of state’s rights and slavery
reconstruction 1865 1877
Reconstruction * 1865-1877

Major Questions following the Civil War:

  • How to re-build the South?
  • How to bring Southern states back into the United States?
  • How to bring former slaves into the United States as free men and women?
how to bring former confederate states back into the united states
How to bring former Confederate States back into the United States?

Should people who fought against the United States be allowed to become American citizens?

Should they be punished?

What should be done to southern state governments that fought against the United States?

freedmen
Freedmen

At the end of the Civil War, there were hundreds of thousands former slaves living in the former Confederate States.

How would freed men and women be treated in the Southern States?

What do you think were some of the major challenges faced by former slaves?

finding answers
Finding Answers…
  • President Lincoln started to answer the questions of Reconstruction in his 10% Plan.
lincoln s 10 plan
Lincoln’s 10% Plan
    • Wanted the process to be simple, meeting a minimum test of loyalty
  • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
  • Full presidential pardons to southerners who (1) took an oath of allegiance to the Union and the Constitution
  • (2) accepted the emancipation of slaves
  • State governments could be reestablished as soon as 10% of the population took the oath
congress s idea
Congress’s Idea!

Wade Davis Bill (1864)

Required 50% of voters to take the loyalty oath

Only non-confederates could vote on a new state constitution

Lincoln pocket-vetoes the bill

  • Response by many Republicans who thought that Lincoln’s plan would allow disloyal secessionists to run state governments
freedman s bureau 1865 1872
Freedman’s Bureau (1865-1872)

(Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands)

  • Provided food, shelter, medical aid for the destitute
  • Benefited both blacks (mostly freed slaves) and homeless whites
  • Had the authority to resettle freed blacks on confiscated farmland
freedman s bureau
Freedman’s Bureau
  • Headed by Union Army General Oliver O. Howard.
  • Established almost 3,000 schools for freed blacks as well as several colleges
  • Helped approximately 200,000 African-Americans how to read
  • By the end of 1865, more than 90,000 former slaves were enrolled as students in public schools.
loss of a leader
Loss of a Leader
  • Last public address on April 11, 1865
  • Says he wants to grant the right to vote to “very intelligent” freedmen and those who were soldiers
  • Loss of Lincoln makes lasting reform impossible.
andrew johnson
Andrew Johnson
  • Chosen as running mate in 1864 to encourage pro-Union democrats to vote for the Union (Republican) party
  • Was the only senator from a Confederate state who stayed loyal to the Union
  • Tennessee’s war governor
  • Problem with him leading reconstruction: ?
presidential reconstruction
Presidential Reconstruction
  • Similar to Lincoln’s 10% Plan- restore Union in as little time as possible
  • Retains power to pardon “disloyal” southerners
  • Frequently pardoned wealthy planters
    • Many former Confederates in power by fall, 1865
presidential reconstruction1
Presidential Reconstruction
  • Southern Governments of 1865
  • 8 months after Johnson takes office, all 11 of the ex-Confederate states qualified to rejoin the Union
  • They repudiated secession, negated debts of the Confederacy, ratified the 13th Amendment.
  • But they didn’t give blacks voting rights
black codes
Black Codes
  • Southern state’s passed these to “regulate Black life”.
    • Restricted the rights of newly freed blacks
  • Prohibited blacks from renting land or borrowing money to buy land
  • Placed freedmen into a form of servitude by forcing them to sign work contracts
    • Worked in cotton fields under white supervision for deferred wages
  • Prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
goals
Goals

Lincoln/Johnson

Radical Republicans

lenient vs punishment
Lenient vs. Punishment

Lincoln/Johnson

Radical Republicans

steps to re enter the union
Steps to Re-enter the Union

Lincoln/Johnson

Radical Republicans

10% Plan (Lincoln) – ten percent of southern voters needed to take an oath of loyalty

Generous amnesty to allow southerners to retain property and reacquire political rights

  • Reconstruction Act of 1867
  • Divide south into five military districts
  • Must ratify 14th Amendment
  • Rights for Freedman
political rights for african americans
Political Rights for African Americans

Lincoln/Johnson

Radical Republicans

13th Amendment – abolish

slavery

Reluctant to support additional political rights for African Americans

13th Amendment – abolish slavery

14th Amendment – citizenship and equal protection

15th Amendment – right to vote for African Americans

programs for african americans
Programs for African Americans

Lincoln/Johnson

Radical Republicans

Not addressed

Extended Freedman’s Bureau to provide food, clothing, shelter, and education to freedman and war refugees

problems
Problems

Lincoln/Johnson

Radical Republicans

Black codes restricted rights of African Americans

Southern States refused to ratify 14th Amendment

No effort to help Freedmen

Failures contributed to support of Radical Republicans

North felt robbed of their victory

reconstruction acts of 1867
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
  • Military Reconstruction Act
    • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.
    • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
reconstruction acts of 18671
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
  • Command of the Army Act
    • The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.
  • Tenure of Office Act
    • The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.
      • Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government.
      • A question of the constitutionality of this law.
johnson s impeachment
Johnson’s Impeachment
  • Johnson removed Edwin Stanton in February, 1868, violating the Tenure of Office Act.
  • Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.
  • The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
johnson s impeachment senate s trial
Johnson’s Impeachment: Senate’s Trial
  • Senate acquittedJohnson 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote) and Johnson finishes his term.
grant s administration
Grant’s Administration
  • Presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption.
scandals

0

Scandals
  • William Belknap
    • Grant’s Secretary of War – found to have accepted bribes from merchants operating at army posts in the West
  • Whiskey Ring
    • A group of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated the government out of millions of dollars by filing false tax reports
scandals1

0

Scandals
  • Panic of 1873
    • A series of bad railroad investments forced the banking firm of Jay Cooke and Co. to declare bankruptcy
    • Smaller banks began to close and the stock market to plummet; thousands of businesses shut down and thousands of Americans were unemployed
congressional election of 1874

0

Congressional Election of 1874

Democrats gain control of Congress

Extend control into the state legislatures

Enforcing Reconstruction is becoming difficult

1876 presidential election1
1876 Presidential Election
  • Rep. Hayes vs. Dem. Tilden
  • Tilden won electoral and popular vote, but Republicans charged South with corrupt voting practices - - there are votes in dispute!
  • A commission is formed to decide election
compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
  • Hayes won with concessions:
    • pulling out of all federal troops from South
    • patronage for southern politicians
    • South decides on enforcement of new Amendments and regulation
political participation the big 3
Abolished slavery

Voting Rights

Political Participation: The Big 3

13th Amendment

14th Amendment

15th Amendment

  • Granted citizenship (overturns Supreme Court case Dred Scott v. Sanford)
  • Equal Protection